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{{task}} A Latin Square is in its reduced form if the first row and first column contain items in their natural order. The order n is the number of items. For any given n there is a set of reduced Latin Squares whose size increases rapidly with n. g is a number which identifies a unique element within the set of reduced Latin Squares of order n. The objective of this task is to construct the set of all Latin Squares of a given order and to provide a means which given suitable values for g any element within the set may be obtained.

For a reduced Latin Square the first row is always 1 to n. The second row is all [[Permutations/Derangements]] of 1 to n starting with 2. The third row is all [[Permutations/Derangements]] of 1 to n starting with 3 which do not clash (do not have the same item in any column) with row 2. The fourth row is all [[Permutations/Derangements]] of 1 to n starting with 4 which do not clash with rows 2 or 3. Likewise continuing to the nth row.

Demonstrate by:

• displaying the four reduced Latin Squares of order 4.
• for n = 1 to 6 (or more) produce the set of reduced Latin Squares; produce a table which shows the size of the set of reduced Latin Squares and compares this value times n! times (n-1)! with the values in [http://oeis.org/A002860 OEIS A002860].

C#

{{trans|D}}

```using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

namespace LatinSquares {
using matrix = List<List<int>>;

class Program {
static void Swap<T>(ref T a, ref T b) {
var t = a;
a = b;
b = t;
}

static matrix DList(int n, int start) {
start--; // use 0 basing
var a = Enumerable.Range(0, n).ToArray();
a[start] = a[0];
a[0] = start;
Array.Sort(a, 1, a.Length - 1);
var first = a[1];
// recursive closure permutes a[1:]
matrix r = new matrix();
void recurse(int last) {
if (last == first) {
// bottom of recursion. you get here once for each permutation.
// test if permutation is deranged.
for (int j = 1; j < a.Length; j++) {
var v = a[j];
if (j == v) {
return; //no, ignore it
}
}
// yes, save a copy with 1 based indexing
var b = a.Select(v => v + 1).ToArray();
return;
}
for (int i = last; i >= 1; i--) {
Swap(ref a[i], ref a[last]);
recurse(last - 1);
Swap(ref a[i], ref a[last]);
}
}
recurse(n - 1);
return r;
}

static ulong ReducedLatinSquares(int n, bool echo) {
if (n <= 0) {
if (echo) {
Console.WriteLine("[]\n");
}
return 0;
} else if (n == 1) {
if (echo) {
Console.WriteLine("[1]\n");
}
return 1;
}

matrix rlatin = new matrix();
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
}
}
// first row
for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
rlatin[0][j] = j + 1;
}

ulong count = 0;
void recurse(int i) {
var rows = DList(n, i);

for (int r = 0; r < rows.Count; r++) {
rlatin[i - 1] = rows[r];
for (int k = 0; k < i - 1; k++) {
for (int j = 1; j < n; j++) {
if (rlatin[k][j] == rlatin[i - 1][j]) {
if (r < rows.Count - 1) {
goto outer;
}
if (i > 2) {
return;
}
}
}
}
if (i < n) {
recurse(i + 1);
} else {
count++;
if (echo) {
PrintSquare(rlatin, n);
}
}
outer: { }
}
}

//remaing rows
recurse(2);
return count;
}

static void PrintSquare(matrix latin, int n) {
foreach (var row in latin) {
var it = row.GetEnumerator();
Console.Write("[");
if (it.MoveNext()) {
Console.Write(it.Current);
}
while (it.MoveNext()) {
Console.Write(", {0}", it.Current);
}
Console.WriteLine("]");
}
Console.WriteLine();
}

static ulong Factorial(ulong n) {
if (n <= 0) {
return 1;
}
ulong prod = 1;
for (ulong i = 2; i < n + 1; i++) {
prod *= i;
}
return prod;
}

static void Main() {
Console.WriteLine("The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:\n");
ReducedLatinSquares(4, true);

Console.WriteLine("The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders");
Console.WriteLine("and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:\n");
for (int n = 1; n < 7; n++) {
ulong nu = (ulong)n;

var size = ReducedLatinSquares(n, false);
var f = Factorial(nu - 1);
f *= f * nu * size;
Console.WriteLine("Order {0}: Size {1} x {2}! x {3}! => Total {4}", n, size, n, n - 1, f);
}
}
}
}
```

{{out}}

```The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 2, 1]
[4, 3, 1, 2]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 4, 1, 3]
[3, 1, 4, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 3, 4, 1]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 1, 2, 3]

The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders
and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:

Order 1: Size 1 x 1! x 0! => Total 1
Order 2: Size 1 x 2! x 1! => Total 2
Order 3: Size 1 x 3! x 2! => Total 12
Order 4: Size 4 x 4! x 3! => Total 576
Order 5: Size 56 x 5! x 4! => Total 161280
Order 6: Size 9408 x 6! x 5! => Total 812851200
```

D

{{trans|Go}}

```import std.algorithm;
import std.array;
import std.range;
import std.stdio;

alias matrix = int[][];

auto dList(int n, int start) {
start--;    // use 0 basing
auto a = iota(0, n).array;
a[start] = a[0];
a[0] = start;
sort(a[1..\$]);
auto first = a[1];
// recursive closure permutes a[1:]
matrix r;
void recurse(int last) {
if (last == first) {
// bottom of recursion. you get here once for each permutation.
// test if permutation is deranged.
foreach (j,v; a[1..\$]) {
if (j + 1 == v) {
return; //no, ignore it
}
}
// yes, save a copy with 1 based indexing
auto b = a.map!"a+1".array;
r ~= b;
return;
}
for (int i = last; i >= 1; i--) {
swap(a[i], a[last]);
recurse(last -1);
swap(a[i], a[last]);
}
}
recurse(n - 1);
return r;
}

ulong reducedLatinSquares(int n, bool echo) {
if (n <= 0) {
if (echo) {
writeln("[]\n");
}
return 0;
} else if (n == 1) {
if (echo) {
writeln("[1]\n");
}
return 1;
}

matrix rlatin = uninitializedArray!matrix(n);
foreach (i; 0..n) {
rlatin[i] = uninitializedArray!(int[])(n);
}
// first row
foreach (j; 0..n) {
rlatin[0][j] = j + 1;
}

ulong count;
void recurse(int i) {
auto rows = dList(n, i);

outer:
foreach (r; 0..rows.length) {
rlatin[i-1] = rows[r].dup;
foreach (k; 0..i-1) {
foreach (j; 1..n) {
if (rlatin[k][j] == rlatin[i - 1][j]) {
if (r < rows.length - 1) {
continue outer;
}
if (i > 2) {
return;
}
}
}
}
if (i < n) {
recurse(i + 1);
} else {
count++;
if (echo) {
printSquare(rlatin, n);
}
}
}
}

// remaining rows
recurse(2);
return count;
}

void printSquare(matrix latin, int n) {
foreach (row; latin) {
writeln(row);
}
writeln;
}

ulong factorial(ulong n) {
if (n == 0) {
return 1;
}
ulong prod = 1;
foreach (i; 2..n+1) {
prod *= i;
}
return prod;
}

void main() {
writeln("The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:\n");
reducedLatinSquares(4, true);

writeln("The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders");
writeln("and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:\n");
foreach (n; 1..7) {
auto size = reducedLatinSquares(n, false);
auto f = factorial(n - 1);
f *= f * n * size;
writefln("Order %d: Size %-4d x %d! x %d! => Total %d", n, size, n, n - 1, f);
}
}
```

{{out}}

```The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 2, 1]
[4, 3, 1, 2]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 4, 1, 3]
[3, 1, 4, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 3, 4, 1]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 1, 2, 3]

The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders
and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:

Order 1: Size 1    x 1! x 0! => Total 1
Order 2: Size 1    x 2! x 1! => Total 2
Order 3: Size 1    x 3! x 2! => Total 12
Order 4: Size 4    x 4! x 3! => Total 576
Order 5: Size 56   x 5! x 4! => Total 161280
Order 6: Size 9408 x 6! x 5! => Total 812851200
```

The Function

```
// Generate Latin Squares in reduced form. Nigel Galloway: July 10th., 2019
let normLS α=
let N=derange α|>List.ofSeq|>List.groupBy(fun n->n.[0])|>List.sortBy(fun(n,_)->n)|>List.map(fun(_,n)->n)|>Array.ofList
let rec fG n g=match n with h::t->fG t (g|>List.filter(fun g->Array.forall2((<>)) h g )) |_->g
let rec normLS n g=seq{for i in fG n N.[g] do if g=α-2 then yield [|1..α|]::(List.rev (i::n)) else yield! normLS (i::n) (g+1)}
match α with 1->seq[[[|1|]]] |2-> seq[[[|1;2|];[|2;1|]]] |_->Seq.collect(fun n->normLS [n] 1) N.[0]

```

```
normLS 4 |> Seq.iter(fun n->List.iter(printfn "%A") n;printfn "");;

```

{{out}}

```
[|1; 2; 3; 4|]
[|2; 3; 4; 1|]
[|3; 4; 1; 2|]
[|4; 1; 2; 3|]

[|1; 2; 3; 4|]
[|2; 1; 4; 3|]
[|3; 4; 2; 1|]
[|4; 3; 1; 2|]

[|1; 2; 3; 4|]
[|2; 1; 4; 3|]
[|3; 4; 1; 2|]
[|4; 3; 2; 1|]

[|1; 2; 3; 4|]
[|2; 4; 1; 3|]
[|3; 1; 4; 2|]
[|4; 3; 2; 1|]

```
```
let rec fact n g=if n<2 then g else fact (n-1) n*g
[1..6] |> List.iter(fun n->let nLS=normLS n|>Seq.length in printfn "order=%d number of Reduced Latin Squares nLS=%d nLS*n!*(n-1)!=%d" n nLS (nLS*(fact n 1)*(fact (n-1) 1)))

```

{{out}}

```
order=1 number of Reduced Latin Squares nLS=1 nLS*n!*(n-1)!=1
order=2 number of Reduced Latin Squares nLS=1 nLS*n!*(n-1)!=2
order=3 number of Reduced Latin Squares nLS=1 nLS*n!*(n-1)!=12
order=4 number of Reduced Latin Squares nLS=4 nLS*n!*(n-1)!=576
order=5 number of Reduced Latin Squares nLS=56 nLS*n!*(n-1)!=161280
order=6 number of Reduced Latin Squares nLS=9408 nLS*n!*(n-1)!=812851200

```

Go

This reuses the dList function from the [[Permutations/Derangements#Go]] task, suitably adjusted for the present one.

```package main

import (
"fmt"
"sort"
)

type matrix [][]int

// generate derangements of first n numbers, with 'start' in first place.
func dList(n, start int) (r matrix) {
start-- // use 0 basing
a := make([]int, n)
for i := range a {
a[i] = i
}
a[0], a[start] = start, a[0]
sort.Ints(a[1:])
first := a[1]
// recursive closure permutes a[1:]
var recurse func(last int)
recurse = func(last int) {
if last == first {
// bottom of recursion.  you get here once for each permutation.
// test if permutation is deranged.
for j, v := range a[1:] { // j starts from 0, not 1
if j+1 == v {
return // no, ignore it
}
}
// yes, save a copy
b := make([]int, n)
copy(b, a)
for i := range b {
b[i]++ // change back to 1 basing
}
r = append(r, b)
return
}
for i := last; i >= 1; i-- {
a[i], a[last] = a[last], a[i]
recurse(last - 1)
a[i], a[last] = a[last], a[i]
}
}
recurse(n - 1)
return
}

func reducedLatinSquare(n int, echo bool) uint64 {
if n <= 0 {
if echo {
fmt.Println("[]\n")
}
return 0
} else if n == 1 {
if echo {
fmt.Println("[1]\n")
}
return 1
}
rlatin := make(matrix, n)
for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
rlatin[i] = make([]int, n)
}
// first row
for j := 0; j < n; j++ {
rlatin[0][j] = j + 1
}

count := uint64(0)
// recursive closure to compute reduced latin squares and count or print them
var recurse func(i int)
recurse = func(i int) {
rows := dList(n, i) // get derangements of first n numbers, with 'i' first.
outer:
for r := 0; r < len(rows); r++ {
copy(rlatin[i-1], rows[r])
for k := 0; k < i-1; k++ {
for j := 1; j < n; j++ {
if rlatin[k][j] == rlatin[i-1][j] {
if r < len(rows)-1 {
continue outer
} else if i > 2 {
return
}
}
}
}
if i < n {
recurse(i + 1)
} else {
count++
if echo {
printSquare(rlatin, n)
}
}
}
return
}

// remaining rows
recurse(2)
return count
}

func printSquare(latin matrix, n int) {
for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
fmt.Println(latin[i])
}
fmt.Println()
}

func factorial(n uint64) uint64 {
if n == 0 {
return 1
}
prod := uint64(1)
for i := uint64(2); i <= n; i++ {
prod *= i
}
return prod
}

func main() {
fmt.Println("The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:\n")
reducedLatinSquare(4, true)

fmt.Println("The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders")
fmt.Println("and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:\n")
for n := uint64(1); n <= 6; n++ {
size := reducedLatinSquare(int(n), false)
f := factorial(n - 1)
f *= f * n * size
fmt.Printf("Order %d: Size %-4d x %d! x %d! => Total %d\n", n, size, n, n-1, f)
}
}
```

{{out}}

```
The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:

[1 2 3 4]
[2 1 4 3]
[3 4 1 2]
[4 3 2 1]

[1 2 3 4]
[2 1 4 3]
[3 4 2 1]
[4 3 1 2]

[1 2 3 4]
[2 4 1 3]
[3 1 4 2]
[4 3 2 1]

[1 2 3 4]
[2 3 4 1]
[3 4 1 2]
[4 1 2 3]

The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders
and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:

Order 1: Size 1    x 1! x 0! => Total 1
Order 2: Size 1    x 2! x 1! => Total 2
Order 3: Size 1    x 3! x 2! => Total 12
Order 4: Size 4    x 4! x 3! => Total 576
Order 5: Size 56   x 5! x 4! => Total 161280
Order 6: Size 9408 x 6! x 5! => Total 812851200

```

Julia

```using Combinatorics

clash(row2, row1::Vector{Int}) = any(i -> row1[i] == row2[i], 1:length(row2))

clash(row, rows::Vector{Vector{Int}}) = any(r -> clash(row, r), rows)

permute_onefixed(i, n) = map(vec -> vcat(i, vec), permutations(filter(x -> x != i, 1:n)))

filter_permuted(rows, i, n) = filter(v -> !clash(v, rows), permute_onefixed(i, n))

function makereducedlatinsquares(n)
matarray = [reshape(collect(1:n), 1, n)]
for i in 2:n
newmatarray = Vector{Matrix{Int}}()
for mat in matarray
r = size(mat)[1] + 1
newrows = filter_permuted(collect(row[:] for row in eachrow(mat)), r, n)
newmat = zeros(Int, r, n)
newmat[1:r-1, :] .= mat
append!(newmatarray,
[deepcopy(begin newmat[i, :] .= row; newmat end) for row in newrows])
end
matarray = newmatarray
end
matarray, length(matarray)
end

function testlatinsquares()
squares, count = makereducedlatinsquares(4)
println("The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:")
for sq in squares, (i, row) in enumerate(eachrow(sq)), j in 1:4
print(row[j], j == 4 ? (i == 4 ? "\n\n" : "\n") : " ")
end
for i in 1:6
squares, count = makereducedlatinsquares(i)
println("Order \$i: Size ", rpad(count, 5), "* \$(i)! * \$(i - 1)! = ",
count * factorial(i) * factorial(i - 1))
end
end

testlatinsquares()

```

{{out}}

```
The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:
1 2 3 4
2 1 4 3
3 4 1 2
4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4
2 1 4 3
3 4 2 1
4 3 1 2

1 2 3 4
2 3 4 1
3 4 1 2
4 1 2 3

1 2 3 4
2 4 1 3
3 1 4 2
4 3 2 1

Order 1: Size 1    * 1! * 0! = 1
Order 2: Size 1    * 2! * 1! = 2
Order 3: Size 1    * 3! * 2! = 12
Order 4: Size 4    * 4! * 3! = 576
Order 5: Size 56   * 5! * 4! = 161280
Order 6: Size 9408 * 6! * 5! = 812851200

```

Kotlin

{{trans|D}}

```

fun dList(n: Int, sp: Int): Matrix {
val start = sp - 1 // use 0 basing

val a = generateSequence(0) { it + 1 }.take(n).toMutableList()
a[start] = a[0].also { a[0] = a[start] }
a.subList(1, a.size).sort()

val first = a[1]
// recursive closure permutes a[1:]
val r = mutableListOf<MutableList<Int>>()
fun recurse(last: Int) {
if (last == first) {
// bottom of recursion. you get here once for each permutation.
// test if permutation is deranged
for (jv in a.subList(1, a.size).withIndex()) {
if (jv.index + 1 == jv.value) {
return  // no, ignore it
}
}
// yes, save a copy with 1 based indexing
val b = a.map { it + 1 }
return
}
for (i in last.downTo(1)) {
a[i] = a[last].also { a[last] = a[i] }
recurse(last - 1)
a[i] = a[last].also { a[last] = a[i] }
}
}
recurse(n - 1)
return r
}

fun reducedLatinSquares(n: Int, echo: Boolean): Long {
if (n <= 0) {
if (echo) {
println("[]\n")
}
return 0
} else if (n == 1) {
if (echo) {
println("[1]\n")
}
return 1
}

val rlatin = MutableList(n) { MutableList(n) { it } }
// first row
for (j in 0 until n) {
rlatin[0][j] = j + 1
}

var count = 0L
fun recurse(i: Int) {
val rows = dList(n, i)

outer@
for (r in 0 until rows.size) {
rlatin[i - 1] = rows[r].toMutableList()
for (k in 0 until i - 1) {
for (j in 1 until n) {
if (rlatin[k][j] == rlatin[i - 1][j]) {
if (r < rows.size - 1) {
continue@outer
}
if (i > 2) {
return
}
}
}
}
if (i < n) {
recurse(i + 1)
} else {
count++
if (echo) {
printSquare(rlatin)
}
}
}
}

// remaining rows
recurse(2)
return count
}

fun printSquare(latin: Matrix) {
for (row in latin) {
println(row)
}
println()
}

fun factorial(n: Long): Long {
if (n == 0L) {
return 1
}
var prod = 1L
for (i in 2..n) {
prod *= i
}
return prod
}

fun main() {
println("The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:\n")
reducedLatinSquares(4, true)

println("The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders")
println("and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:\n")
for (n in 1 until 7) {
val size = reducedLatinSquares(n, false)
var f = factorial(n - 1.toLong())
f *= f * n * size
println("Order \$n: Size %-4d x \$n! x \${n - 1}! => Total \$f".format(size))
}
}
```

{{out}}

```The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 2, 1]
[4, 3, 1, 2]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 4, 1, 3]
[3, 1, 4, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 3, 4, 1]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 1, 2, 3]

The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders
and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:

Order 1: Size 1    x 1! x 0! => Total 1
Order 2: Size 1    x 2! x 1! => Total 2
Order 3: Size 1    x 3! x 2! => Total 12
Order 4: Size 4    x 4! x 3! => Total 576
Order 5: Size 56   x 5! x 4! => Total 161280
Order 6: Size 9408 x 6! x 5! => Total 812851200
```

MiniZinc

===The Model (lsRF.mnz)===

```
%Latin Squares in Reduced Form. Nigel Galloway, September 5th., 2019
include "alldifferent.mzn";
int: N;
array[1..N,1..N] of var 1..N: p; constraint forall(n in 1..N)(p[1,n]=n /\ p[n,1]=n);
constraint forall(n in 1..N)(alldifferent([p[n,g]|g in 1..N])/\alldifferent([p[g,n]|g in 1..N]));

```

;displaying the four reduced Latin Squares of order 4

```
include "lsRF.mzn";
output  [show_int(1,p[i,j])++
if j == 4 then
if i != 4 then "\n"
else "" endif
else "" endif
| i,j in 1..4 ] ++ ["\n"];

```

When the above is run using minizinc --all-solutions -DN=4 the following is produced: {{out}}

```
1234
2143
3421
4312
----------
1234
2143
3412
4321
----------
1234
2413
3142
4321
----------
1234
2341
3412
4123
----------

### ====

```

;counting the solutions minizinc.exe --all-solutions -DN=5 -s lsRF.mzn produces the following:

```
.
.
.
p = array2d(1..5, 1..5, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 3, 1, 5, 2, 4, 4, 5, 2, 1, 3, 5, 4, 1, 3, 2]);
----------
p = array2d(1..5, 1..5, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 2, 3, 5, 1, 4, 3, 5, 4, 2, 1, 4, 1, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 1, 3, 2]);
----------
p = array2d(1..5, 1..5, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1, 3, 5, 2, 1, 4, 4, 1, 5, 2, 3, 5, 4, 1, 3, 2]);
----------

### ====

%%%mzn-stat: initTime=0.057
%%%mzn-stat: solveTime=0.003
%%%mzn-stat: solutions=56
%%%mzn-stat: variables=43
%%%mzn-stat: propagators=8
%%%mzn-stat: propagations=960
%%%mzn-stat: nodes=111
%%%mzn-stat: failures=0
%%%mzn-stat: restarts=0
%%%mzn-stat: peakDepth=7
%%%mzn-stat-end
%%%mzn-stat: nSolutions=56

```

and minizinc.exe --all-solutions -DN=6 -s lsRF.mzn produces the following:

```
.
.
.
p = array2d(1..6, 1..6, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 2, 4, 5, 6, 3, 1, 3, 1, 4, 2, 6, 5, 4, 6, 2, 5, 1, 3, 5, 3, 6, 1, 2, 4, 6, 5, 1, 3, 4, 2]);
----------
p = array2d(1..6, 1..6, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 2, 1, 4, 6, 3, 5, 3, 4, 5, 2, 6, 1, 4, 6, 2, 5, 1, 3, 5, 3, 6, 1, 2, 4, 6, 5, 1, 3, 4, 2]);
----------

### ====

%%%mzn-stat: initTime=0.003
%%%mzn-stat: solveTime=6.669
%%%mzn-stat: solutions=9408
%%%mzn-stat: variables=58
%%%mzn-stat: propagators=10
%%%mzn-stat: propagations=179635
%%%mzn-stat: nodes=19035
%%%mzn-stat: failures=110
%%%mzn-stat: restarts=0
%%%mzn-stat: peakDepth=17
%%%mzn-stat-end
%%%mzn-stat: nSolutions=9408

```

The only way to complete the tasks requirement to produce a table is with another language. Ruby has the ability to run an external program, capture the output, and text handling ability to format it to this tasks requirements. Othe scripting languages are available.

Phix

A Simple backtracking search.

aside: in phix here is no difference between res[r][c] and res[r,c]. I mixed them here, using whichever felt the more natural to me.

```string aleph = "123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"

function rfls(integer n, bool count_only=true)
if n>length(aleph) then ?9/0 end if -- too big...
if n=1 then return iff(count_only?1:{{1}}) end if
sequence tn = tagset(n),     -- {1..n}
vcs = repeat(tn,n), -- valid for cols
vrs = repeat(tn,n), -- valid for rows
res = repeat(tn,n)  -- (main workspace/one element of result)
object result = iff(count_only?0:{})
vcs[1] = {}     -- (not strictly necessary)
vrs[1] = {}     --          """
for i=2 to n do
res[i] = i & repeat(0,n-1)
vrs[i][i] = 0
vcs[i][i] = 0
end for
integer r = 2, c = 2
while true do
-- place with backtrack:
-- if we successfully place [n,n] add to results and backtrack
-- terminate when we fail to place or backtrack from [2,2]
integer rrc = res[r,c]
if rrc!=0 then  -- backtrack (/undo)
if vrs[r][rrc]!=0 then ?9/0 end if  -- sanity check
if vcs[c][rrc]!=0 then ?9/0 end if  --      ""
res[r,c] = 0
vrs[r][rrc] = rrc
vcs[c][rrc] = rrc
end if
bool found = false
for i=rrc+1 to n do
if vrs[r][i] and vcs[c][i] then
res[r,c] = i
vrs[r][i] = 0
vcs[c][i] = 0
found = true
exit
end if
end for
if found then
if r=n and c=n then
if count_only then
result += 1
else
result = append(result,res)
end if
-- (here, backtracking == not advancing)
elsif c=n then
c = 2
r += 1
else
c += 1
end if
else
-- backtrack
if r=2 and c=2 then exit end if
c -= 1
if c=1 then
r -= 1
c = n
end if
end if
end while
return result
end function

procedure reduced_form_latin_squares(integer n)
sequence res = rfls(n,false)
for k=1 to length(res) do
for i=1 to n do
string line = ""
for j=1 to n do
line &= aleph[res[k][i][j]]
end for
res[k][i] = line
end for
res[k] = join(res[k],"\n")
end for
string r = join(res,"\n\n")
printf(1,"There are %d reduced form latin squares of order %d:\n%s\n",{length(res),n,r})
end procedure

reduced_form_latin_squares(4)
puts(1,"\n")
for n=1 to 6 do
integer size = rfls(n),
f = factorial(n)*factorial(n-1)*size
printf(1,"Order %d: Size %-4d x %d! x %d! => Total %d\n", {n, size, n, n-1, f})
end for
```

{{out}}

```
There are 4 reduced form latin squares of order 4:
1234
2143
3412
4321

1234
2143
3421
4312

1234
2341
3412
4123

1234
2413
3142
4321

Order 1: Size 1    x 1! x 0! => Total 1
Order 2: Size 1    x 2! x 1! => Total 2
Order 3: Size 1    x 3! x 2! => Total 12
Order 4: Size 4    x 4! x 3! => Total 576
Order 5: Size 56   x 5! x 4! => Total 161280
Order 6: Size 9408 x 6! x 5! => Total 812851200

```

Python

{{trans|D}}

```def dList(n, start):
start -= 1 # use 0 basing
a = range(n)
a[start] = a[0]
a[0] = start
a[1:] = sorted(a[1:])
first = a[1]
# rescursive closure permutes a[1:]
r = []
def recurse(last):
if (last == first):
# bottom of recursion. you get here once for each permutation.
# test if permutation is deranged.
# yes, save a copy with 1 based indexing
for j,v in enumerate(a[1:]):
if j + 1 == v:
return # no, ignore it
b = [x + 1 for x in a]
r.append(b)
return
for i in xrange(last, 0, -1):
a[i], a[last] = a[last], a[i]
recurse(last - 1)
a[i], a[last] = a[last], a[i]
recurse(n - 1)
return r

def printSquare(latin,n):
for row in latin:
print row
print

def reducedLatinSquares(n,echo):
if n <= 0:
if echo:
print []
return 0
elif n == 1:
if echo:
print [1]
return 1

rlatin = [None] * n
for i in xrange(n):
rlatin[i] = [None] * n
# first row
for j in xrange(0, n):
rlatin[0][j] = j + 1

class OuterScope:
count = 0
def recurse(i):
rows = dList(n, i)

for r in xrange(len(rows)):
rlatin[i - 1] = rows[r]
justContinue = False
k = 0
while not justContinue and k < i - 1:
for j in xrange(1, n):
if rlatin[k][j] == rlatin[i - 1][j]:
if r < len(rows) - 1:
justContinue = True
break
if i > 2:
return
k += 1
if not justContinue:
if i < n:
recurse(i + 1)
else:
OuterScope.count += 1
if echo:
printSquare(rlatin, n)

# remaining rows
recurse(2)
return OuterScope.count

def factorial(n):
if n == 0:
return 1
prod = 1
for i in xrange(2, n + 1):
prod *= i
return prod

print "The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:\n"
reducedLatinSquares(4,True)

print "The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders"
print "and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:\n"
for n in xrange(1, 7):
size = reducedLatinSquares(n, False)
f = factorial(n - 1)
f *= f * n * size
print "Order %d: Size %-4d x %d! x %d! => Total %d" % (n, size, n, n - 1, f)
```

{{out}}

```The four reduced latin squares of order 4 are:

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 1, 4, 3]
[3, 4, 2, 1]
[4, 3, 1, 2]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 4, 1, 3]
[3, 1, 4, 2]
[4, 3, 2, 1]

[1, 2, 3, 4]
[2, 3, 4, 1]
[3, 4, 1, 2]
[4, 1, 2, 3]

The size of the set of reduced latin squares for the following orders
and hence the total number of latin squares of these orders are:

Order 1: Size 1    x 1! x 0! => Total 1
Order 2: Size 1    x 2! x 1! => Total 2
Order 3: Size 1    x 3! x 2! => Total 12
Order 4: Size 4    x 4! x 3! => Total 576
Order 5: Size 56   x 5! x 4! => Total 161280
Order 6: Size 9408 x 6! x 5! => Total 812851200
```