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{{clarify task}}{{draft task}} Implement the [[wp:Montgomery reduction|Montgomery reduction]] algorithm, as explained in "Handbook of Applied Cryptography, Section 14.3.2, page 600. Montgomery reduction calculates $T R^\left\{-1\right\} \mathrm\left\{mod\right\} m$, without having to divide by $m$.

• Let $M$ be a positive integer, and $R$ and $T$ integers such that $R > m$, $\mathrm\left\{gcd\right\}\left(m, R\right) = 1$, and $0 \le T < mR$.
• $R$ is usually chosen as $b^n$, where $b$ = base (radix) in which the numbers in the calculation as represented in (so $b = 10$ in ‘normal’ paper arithmetic, $b = 2$ for computer implementations) and $n$ = number of digits in base $m$
• The numbers $m$ ($n$ digits long), $T$ ($2n$ digits long), $R$, $b$, $n$ are known entities, a number $m\text{'}$ (often represented as m_dash in code) = $-m^\left\{-1\right\} \mathrm\left\{mod\right\} b$ is precomputed.

See the Handbook of Applied Cryptography for brief introduction to theory and numerical example in radix 10. Individual chapters of the book [http://www.cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/hac/ can be viewed online] as provided by the authors. The said algorithm can be found at [http://www.cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/hac/about/chap14.pdf] at page 600 (page 11 of pdf file)

Algorithm: A ← T (temporary variable) For i from 0 to (n-1) do the following: ui ← ai* m' mod b // ai is the ith digit of A, ui is a single digit number in radix b A ← A + uimbi A ← A/bn if A >= m, A ← A - m Return (A)

## C++

#include <iostream>
#include <conio.h>
using namespace std;
typedef unsigned long ulong;

int ith_digit_finder(long long n, long b, long i){
/**
n = number whose digits we need to extract
b = radix in which the number if represented
i = the ith bit (ie, index of the bit that needs to be extracted)
**/
while(i>0){
n/=b;
i--;
}
return (n%b);
}

long eeuclid(long m, long b, long *inverse){        /// eeuclid( modulus, num whose inv is to be found, variable to put inverse )
/// Algorithm used from Stallings book
long A1 = 1, A2 = 0, A3 = m,
B1 = 0, B2 = 1, B3 = b,
T1, T2, T3, Q;

cout<<endl<<"eeuclid() started"<<endl;

while(1){
if(B3 == 0){
*inverse = 0;
return A3;      // A3 = gcd(m,b)
}

if(B3 == 1){
*inverse = B2; // B2 = b^-1 mod m
return B3;      // A3 = gcd(m,b)
}

Q = A3/B3;

T1 = A1 - Q*B1;
T2 = A2 - Q*B2;
T3 = A3 - Q*B3;

A1 = B1; A2 = B2; A3 = B3;
B1 = T1; B2 = T2; B3 = T3;

}
cout<<endl<<"ending eeuclid() "<<endl;
}

long long mon_red(long m, long m_dash, long T, int n, long b = 2){
/**
m = modulus
m_dash = m' = -m^-1 mod b
T = number whose modular reduction is needed, the o/p of the function is TR^-1 mod m
n = number of bits in m (2n is the number of bits in T)
b = radix used (for practical implementations, is equal to 2, which is the default value)
**/
long long A,ui, temp, Ai;       // Ai is the ith bit of A, need not be llong long probably
if( m_dash < 0 ) m_dash = m_dash + b;
A = T;
for(int i = 0; i<n; i++){
///    ui = ( (A%b)*m_dash ) % b;        // step 2.1; A%b gives ai (MISTAKE -- A%b will always give the last digit of A if A is represented in base b); hence we need the function ith_digit_finder()
Ai = ith_digit_finder(A, b, i);
ui = ( ( Ai % b) * m_dash ) % b;
temp  = ui*m*power(b, i);
A = A + temp;
}
A = A/power(b, n);
if(A >= m) A = A - m;
return A;
}

int main(){
long a, b, c, d=0, e, inverse = 0;
cout<<"m >> ";
cin >> a;
cout<<"T >> ";
cin>>b;
cin>>c;
eeuclid(c, a, &d);      // eeuclid( modulus, num whose inverse is to be found, address of variable which is to store inverse)
e = mon_red(a, -d, b, length_finder(a, c), c);
cout<<"Montgomery domain representation = "<<e;
return 0;
}


## C#

{{trans|D}}

using System;
using System.Numerics;

namespace MontgomeryReduction {
public static class Helper {
public static int BitLength(this BigInteger v) {
if (v < 0) {
v *= -1;
}

int result = 0;
while (v > 0) {
v >>= 1;
result++;
}

return result;
}
}

struct Montgomery {
public static readonly int BASE = 2;

public BigInteger m;
public BigInteger rrm;
public int n;

public Montgomery(BigInteger m) {
if (m < 0 || m.IsEven) throw new ArgumentException();

this.m = m;
n = m.BitLength();
rrm = (BigInteger.One << (n * 2)) % m;
}

public BigInteger Reduce(BigInteger t) {
var a = t;

for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
if (!a.IsEven) a += m;
a = a >> 1;
}
if (a >= m) a -= m;
return a;
}
}

class Program {
static void Main(string[] args) {
var m = BigInteger.Parse("750791094644726559640638407699");
var x1 = BigInteger.Parse("540019781128412936473322405310");
var x2 = BigInteger.Parse("515692107665463680305819378593");

var mont = new Montgomery(m);
var t1 = x1 * mont.rrm;
var t2 = x2 * mont.rrm;

var r1 = mont.Reduce(t1);
var r2 = mont.Reduce(t2);
var r = BigInteger.One << mont.n;

Console.WriteLine("b :  {0}", Montgomery.BASE);
Console.WriteLine("n :  {0}", mont.n);
Console.WriteLine("r :  {0}", r);
Console.WriteLine("m :  {0}", mont.m);
Console.WriteLine("t1:  {0}", t1);
Console.WriteLine("t2:  {0}", t2);
Console.WriteLine("r1:  {0}", r1);
Console.WriteLine("r2:  {0}", r2);
Console.WriteLine();
Console.WriteLine("Original x1       : {0}", x1);
Console.WriteLine("Recovered from r1 : {0}", mont.Reduce(r1));
Console.WriteLine("Original x2       : {0}", x2);
Console.WriteLine("Recovered from r2 : {0}", mont.Reduce(r2));

Console.WriteLine();
Console.WriteLine("Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :");
var prod = mont.Reduce(mont.rrm);
var @base = mont.Reduce(x1 * mont.rrm);
var exp = x2;
while (exp.BitLength() > 0) {
if (!exp.IsEven) prod = mont.Reduce(prod * @base);
exp >>= 1;
@base = mont.Reduce(@base * @base);
}
Console.WriteLine(mont.Reduce(prod));
Console.WriteLine();
Console.WriteLine("Alternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :");
Console.WriteLine(BigInteger.ModPow(x1, x2, m));
}
}
}


{{out}}

b :  2
n :  100
r :  1267650600228229401496703205376
m :  750791094644726559640638407699
t1:  323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100
t2:  308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730
r1:  440160025148131680164261562101
r2:  435362628198191204145287283255

Original x1       : 540019781128412936473322405310
Recovered from r1 : 540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2       : 515692107665463680305819378593
Recovered from r2 : 515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778

Alternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778


## D

{{trans|Kotlin}}

import std.bigint;
import std.stdio;

int bitLength(BigInt v) {
if (v < 0) {
v *= -1;
}

int result = 0;
while (v > 0) {
v >>= 1;
result++;
}

return result;
}

/// https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modular_exponentiation#Right-to-left_binary_method
BigInt modPow(BigInt b, BigInt e, BigInt n) {
if (n == 1) return BigInt(0);
BigInt result = 1;
b = b % n;
while (e > 0) {
if (e % 2 == 1) {
result = (result * b) % n;
}
e >>= 1;
b = (b*b) % n;
}
return result;
}

struct Montgomery {
BigInt m;
int n;
BigInt rrm;

this(BigInt m) in {
assert(m > 0 && (m & 1) != 0); // must be positive and odd
} body {
this.m = m;
n = m.bitLength();
rrm = (BigInt(1) << (n * 2)) % m;
}

BigInt reduce(BigInt t) {
auto a = t;

foreach(i; 0..n) {
if ((a & 1) == 1) a += m;
a = a >> 1;
}
if (a >= m) a -= m;
return a;
}

enum BASE = 2;
}

void main() {
auto m = BigInt("750791094644726559640638407699");
auto x1 = BigInt("540019781128412936473322405310");
auto x2 = BigInt("515692107665463680305819378593");

auto mont = Montgomery(m);
auto t1 = x1 * mont.rrm;
auto t2 = x2 * mont.rrm;

auto r1 = mont.reduce(t1);
auto r2 = mont.reduce(t2);
auto r = BigInt(1) << mont.n;

writeln("b :  ", Montgomery.BASE);
writeln("n :  ", mont.n);
writeln("r :  ", r);
writeln("m :  ", mont.m);
writeln("t1:  ", t1);
writeln("t2:  ", t2);
writeln("r1:  ", r1);
writeln("r2:  ", r2);
writeln();
writeln("Original x1       : ", x1);
writeln("Recovered from r1 : ", mont.reduce(r1));
writeln("Original x2       : ", x2);
writeln("Recovered from r2 : ", mont.reduce(r2));

writeln("\nMontgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :");
auto prod = mont.reduce(mont.rrm);
auto base = mont.reduce(x1 * mont.rrm);
auto exp = x2;
while (exp.bitLength() > 0) {
if ((exp & 1) == 1) prod = mont.reduce(prod * base);
exp >>= 1;
base = mont.reduce(base * base);
}
writeln(mont.reduce(prod));
writeln("\nAlternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :");
writeln(x1.modPow(x2, m));
}


{{out}}

b :  2
n :  100
r :  1267650600228229401496703205376
m :  750791094644726559640638407699
t1:  323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100
t2:  308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730
r1:  440160025148131680164261562101
r2:  435362628198191204145287283255

Original x1       : 540019781128412936473322405310
Recovered from r1 : 540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2       : 515692107665463680305819378593
Recovered from r2 : 515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778

Alternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778


## Go

package main

import (
"fmt"
"math/big"
"math/rand"
"time"
)

// mont holds numbers useful for working in Mongomery representation.
type mont struct {
n  uint     // m.BitLen()
m  *big.Int // modulus, must be odd
r2 *big.Int // (1<<2n) mod m
}

// constructor
func newMont(m *big.Int) *mont {
if m.Bit(0) != 1 {
return nil
}
n := uint(m.BitLen())
x := big.NewInt(1)
x.Sub(x.Lsh(x, n), m)
return &mont{n, new(big.Int).Set(m), x.Mod(x.Mul(x, x), m)}
}

// Montgomery reduction algorithm
func (m mont) reduce(t *big.Int) *big.Int {
a := new(big.Int).Set(t)
for i := uint(0); i < m.n; i++ {
if a.Bit(0) == 1 {
}
a.Rsh(a, 1)
}
if a.Cmp(m.m) >= 0 {
a.Sub(a, m.m)
}
return a
}

// example use:
func main() {
const n = 100 // bit length for numbers in example

// generate random n-bit odd number for modulus m
rnd := rand.New(rand.NewSource(time.Now().UnixNano()))
one := big.NewInt(1)
r1 := new(big.Int).Lsh(one, n-1)
r2 := new(big.Int).Lsh(one, n-2)
m := new(big.Int)
m.Or(r1, m.Or(m.Lsh(m.Rand(rnd, r2), 1), one))

// make Montgomery reduction object around m
mr := newMont(m)

// generate a couple more numbers in the range 0..m.
// these are numbers we will do some computations on, mod m.
x1 := new(big.Int).Rand(rnd, m)
x2 := new(big.Int).Rand(rnd, m)

// t1, t2 are examples of T, from the task description.
// Generated this way, they will be in the range 0..m^2, and so < mR.
t1 := new(big.Int).Mul(x1, mr.r2)
t2 := new(big.Int).Mul(x2, mr.r2)

// reduce.  r1 and r2 are now montgomery representations of x1 and x2.
r1 = mr.reduce(t1)
r2 = mr.reduce(t2)

// this is the end of what is described in the task so far.
fmt.Println("b:  2")
fmt.Println("n: ", mr.n)
fmt.Println("r: ", new(big.Int).Lsh(one, mr.n))
fmt.Println("m: ", mr.m)
fmt.Println("t1:", t1)
fmt.Println("t2:", t2)
fmt.Println("r1:", r1)
fmt.Println("r2:", r2)

// but now demonstrate that it works:
fmt.Println()
fmt.Println("Original x1:       ", x1)
fmt.Println("Recovererd from r1:", mr.reduce(r1))
fmt.Println("Original x2:       ", x2)
fmt.Println("Recovererd from r2:", mr.reduce(r2))

// and demonstrate a use:
fmt.Println("\nMontgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:")
// this is the modular exponentiation algorithm, except we call
// mont.reduce instead of using a mod function.
prod := mr.reduce(mr.r2)             // 1
base := mr.reduce(t1.Mul(x1, mr.r2)) // x1^1
exp := new(big.Int).Set(x2)          // not reduced
for exp.BitLen() > 0 {
if exp.Bit(0) == 1 {
prod = mr.reduce(prod.Mul(prod, base))
}
exp.Rsh(exp, 1)
base = mr.reduce(base.Mul(base, base))
}
fmt.Println(mr.reduce(prod))

// show library-based equivalent computation as a check
fmt.Println("\nLibrary-based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:")
fmt.Println(new(big.Int).Exp(x1, x2, m))
}


{{out}}


b:  2
n:  100
r:  1267650600228229401496703205376
m:  750791094644726559640638407699
t1: 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100
t2: 308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730
r1: 440160025148131680164261562101
r2: 435362628198191204145287283255

Original x1:        540019781128412936473322405310
Recovererd from r1: 540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2:        515692107665463680305819378593
Recovererd from r2: 515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:
151232511393500655853002423778

Library based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:
151232511393500655853002423778



## Java

{{trans|Kotlin}}

import java.math.BigInteger;

public class MontgomeryReduction {
private static final BigInteger ZERO = BigInteger.ZERO;
private static final BigInteger ONE = BigInteger.ONE;
private static final BigInteger TWO = BigInteger.valueOf(2);

public static class Montgomery {
public static final int BASE = 2;

BigInteger m;
BigInteger rrm;
int n;

public Montgomery(BigInteger m) {
if (m.compareTo(BigInteger.ZERO) <= 0 || !m.testBit(0)) {
throw new IllegalArgumentException();
}
this.m = m;
this.n = m.bitLength();
this.rrm = ONE.shiftLeft(n * 2).mod(m);
}

public BigInteger reduce(BigInteger t) {
BigInteger a = t;
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
a = a.shiftRight(1);
}
if (a.compareTo(m) >= 0) a = a.subtract(this.m);
return a;
}
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
BigInteger m  = new BigInteger("750791094644726559640638407699");
BigInteger x1 = new BigInteger("540019781128412936473322405310");
BigInteger x2 = new BigInteger("515692107665463680305819378593");

Montgomery mont = new Montgomery(m);
BigInteger t1 = x1.multiply(mont.rrm);
BigInteger t2 = x2.multiply(mont.rrm);

BigInteger r1 = mont.reduce(t1);
BigInteger r2 = mont.reduce(t2);
BigInteger r = ONE.shiftLeft(mont.n);

System.out.printf("b :  %s\n", Montgomery.BASE);
System.out.printf("n :  %s\n", mont.n);
System.out.printf("r :  %s\n", r);
System.out.printf("m :  %s\n", mont.m);
System.out.printf("t1:  %s\n", t1);
System.out.printf("t2:  %s\n", t2);
System.out.printf("r1:  %s\n", r1);
System.out.printf("r2:  %s\n", r2);
System.out.println();
System.out.printf("Original x1       :  %s\n", x1);
System.out.printf("Recovered from r1 :  %s\n", mont.reduce(r1));
System.out.printf("Original x2       :  %s\n", x2);
System.out.printf("Recovered from r2 :  %s\n", mont.reduce(r2));

System.out.println();
System.out.println("Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :");
BigInteger prod = mont.reduce(mont.rrm);
BigInteger base = mont.reduce(x1.multiply(mont.rrm));
BigInteger exp = x2;
while (exp.bitLength()>0) {
if (exp.testBit(0)) prod=mont.reduce(prod.multiply(base));
exp = exp.shiftRight(1);
base = mont.reduce(base.multiply(base));
}
System.out.println(mont.reduce(prod));

System.out.println();
System.out.println("Library-based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :");
System.out.println(x1.modPow(x2, m));
}
}


{{out}}

b :  2
n :  100
r :  1267650600228229401496703205376
m :  750791094644726559640638407699
t1:  323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100
t2:  308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730
r1:  440160025148131680164261562101
r2:  435362628198191204145287283255

Original x1       :  540019781128412936473322405310
Recovered from r1 :  540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2       :  515692107665463680305819378593
Recovered from r2 :  515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778

Library-based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778


## Julia

{{trans|Python}}

""" base 2 type Montgomery numbers """
struct Montgomery2
m::BigInt
n::Int64
rrm::BigInt
end

function Montgomery2(x::BigInt)
bitlen = length(string(x, base=2))
r = (x == 0) ? 0 : (BigInt(1) << (bitlen * 2)) % x
Montgomery2(x, bitlen, r)
end
Montgomery2(n) = Montgomery2(BigInt(n))

function reduce(mm::Montgomery2, t)
a = BigInt(t)
for i in 1:mm.n
if isodd(a)
a += mm.m
end
a >>= 1
end
return a >= mm.m ? a - mm.m : a
end

BASE(::Montgomery2) = 2

const mmm = Montgomery2(20)

function testmontgomery2()
m = big"750791094644726559640638407699"
x1 = big"540019781128412936473322405310"
x2 = big"515692107665463680305819378593"

mont = Montgomery2(m)
t1 = x1 * mont.rrm
t2 = x2 * mont.rrm
r1 = reduce(mont, t1)
r2 = reduce(mont, t2)
r = 1 << mont.n
println("b : ", BASE(mont))
println("n : ", mont.n)
println("r : ", r)
println("m : ", mont.m)
println("t1: ", t1)
println("t2: ", t2)
println("r1: ", r1)
println("r2: ", r2)
println()
println("Original x1       :", x1)
println("Recovered from r1 :", reduce(mont, r1))
println("Original x2       :", x2)
println("Recovered from r2 :", reduce(mont, r2))
println("\nMontgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:")
prod = reduce(mont, mont.rrm)
base = reduce(mont, x1 * mont.rrm)
pow = x2
while pow > 0
if isodd(pow)
prod = reduce(mont, prod * base)
end
pow >>= 1
base = reduce(mont, base * base)
end
println(reduce(mont, prod))
println("\nAlternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :")
println(powermod(x1, x2, m))
end

testmontgomery2()



{{out}}


b : 2
n : 100
r : 0
m : 750791094644726559640638407699
t1: 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100
t2: 308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730
r1: 440160025148131680164261562101
r2: 435362628198191204145287283255

Original x1       :540019781128412936473322405310
Recovered from r1 :540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2       :515692107665463680305819378593
Recovered from r2 :515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:
151232511393500655853002423778

Alternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778



## Kotlin

{{trans|Go}}

// version 1.1.3

import java.math.BigInteger

val bigZero = BigInteger.ZERO
val bigOne  = BigInteger.ONE
val bigTwo  = BigInteger.valueOf(2L)

class Montgomery(val m: BigInteger) {
val n:   Int
val rrm: BigInteger

init {
require(m > bigZero && m.testBit(0)) // must be positive and odd
n = m.bitLength()
rrm = bigOne.shiftLeft(n * 2).mod(m)
}

fun reduce(t: BigInteger): BigInteger {
var a = t
for (i in 0 until n) {
if (a.testBit(0)) a += m
a = a.shiftRight(1)
}
if (a >= m) a -= m
return a
}

companion object {
const val BASE = 2
}
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val m  = BigInteger("750791094644726559640638407699")
val x1 = BigInteger("540019781128412936473322405310")
val x2 = BigInteger("515692107665463680305819378593")

val mont = Montgomery(m)
val t1 = x1 * mont.rrm
val t2 = x2 * mont.rrm

val r1 = mont.reduce(t1)
val r2 = mont.reduce(t2)
val r  = bigOne.shiftLeft(mont.n)

println("b :  ${Montgomery.BASE}") println("n :${mont.n}")
println("r :  $r") println("m :${mont.m}")
println("t1:  $t1") println("t2:$t2")
println("r1:  $r1") println("r2:$r2")
println()
println("Original x1       : $x1") println("Recovered from r1 :${mont.reduce(r1)}")
println("Original x2       : $x2") println("Recovered from r2 :${mont.reduce(r2)}")

println("\nMontgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :")
var prod = mont.reduce(mont.rrm)
var base = mont.reduce(x1 * mont.rrm)
var exp  = x2
while (exp.bitLength() > 0) {
if (exp.testBit(0)) prod = mont.reduce(prod * base)
exp = exp.shiftRight(1)
base = mont.reduce(base * base)
}
println(mont.reduce(prod))
println("\nLibrary-based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :")
println(x1.modPow(x2, m))
}


{{out}}


b :  2
n :  100
r :  1267650600228229401496703205376
m :  750791094644726559640638407699
t1:  323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100
t2:  308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730
r1:  440160025148131680164261562101
r2:  435362628198191204145287283255

Original x1       : 540019781128412936473322405310
Recovered from r1 : 540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2       : 515692107665463680305819378593
Recovered from r2 : 515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778

Library-based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :
151232511393500655853002423778



## Perl

use bigint;
use ntheory qw(powmod);

sub msb {
my ($n,$base) = (shift, 0);
$base++ while$n >>= 1;
$base; } sub montgomery_reduce { my($m, $a) = @_; for (0 .. msb($m)) {
$a +=$m if $a & 1;$a >>= 1
}
$a %$m
}

my $m = 750791094644726559640638407699; my$t1 = 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100;

my $r1 = 440160025148131680164261562101; my$r2 = 435362628198191204145287283255;

my $x1 = 540019781128412936473322405310; my$x2 = 515692107665463680305819378593;

printf "Original x1:       %s\n", $x1; printf "Recovered from r1: %s\n", montgomery_reduce($m, $r1); printf "Original x2: %s\n",$x2;
printf "Recovered from r2: %s\n", montgomery_reduce($m,$r2);

print "\nMontgomery  computation x1**x2 mod m: ";
my $prod = montgomery_reduce($m, $t1/$x1);
my $base = montgomery_reduce($m, $t1); for (my$exponent = $x2;$exponent >= 0; $exponent >>= 1) {$prod = montgomery_reduce($m,$prod * $base) if$exponent & 1;
$base = montgomery_reduce($m, $base *$base);
last if $exponent == 0; } print montgomery_reduce($m, $prod) . "\n"; printf "Built-in op computation x1**x2 mod m: %s\n", powmod($x1, $x2,$m);


{{out}}

Original x1:       540019781128412936473322405310
Recovered from r1: 540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2:       515692107665463680305819378593
Recovered from r2: 515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery  computation x1**x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778
Built-in op computation x1**x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778


## Perl 6

{{works with|Rakudo|2018.03}} {{trans|Sidef}}

sub montgomery-reduce($m,$a is copy) {
for 0..$m.msb {$a += $m if$a +& 1;
$a +>= 1 }$a % $m } my$m  = 750791094644726559640638407699;
my $t1 = 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100; my$r1 = 440160025148131680164261562101;
my $r2 = 435362628198191204145287283255; my$x1 = 540019781128412936473322405310;
my $x2 = 515692107665463680305819378593; say "Original x1: ",$x1;
say "Recovered from r1: ", montgomery-reduce($m,$r1);
say "Original x2:       ", $x2; say "Recovered from r2: ", montgomery-reduce($m, $r2); print "\nMontgomery computation x1**x2 mod m: "; my$prod = montgomery-reduce($m,$t1/$x1); my$base = montgomery-reduce($m,$t1);

for $x2, {$_ +> 1} ... 0 -> $exponent {$prod = montgomery-reduce($m,$prod * $base) if$exponent +& 1;
$base = montgomery-reduce($m, $base *$base);
}

say montgomery-reduce($m,$prod);
say "Built-in op computation x1**x2 mod m: ", $x1.expmod($x2, $m);  {{out}} Original x1: 540019781128412936473322405310 Recovered from r1: 540019781128412936473322405310 Original x2: 515692107665463680305819378593 Recovered from r2: 515692107665463680305819378593 Montgomery computation x1**x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778 Built-in op computation x1**x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778  ## Phix {{trans|D}} {{libheader|mpfr}} include mpfr.e enum BASE, BITLEN, MODULUS, RRM function reduce(sequence mont, mpz a) integer n = mont[BITLEN] mpz m = mont[MODULUS], r = mpz_init_set(a) for i=1 to n do if mpz_odd(r) then mpz_add(r,r,m) end if {} = mpz_fdiv_q_ui(r,r,2) end for if mpz_cmp(r,m)>=0 then mpz_sub(r,r,m) end if return r end function function Montgomery(mpz m) if mpz_sign(m)=-1 then crash("must be positive") end if if not mpz_odd(m) then crash("must be odd") end if integer n = mpz_sizeinbase(m,2) mpz rrm = mpz_init(2) mpz_powm_ui(rrm,rrm,n*2,m) return {2, -- BASE n, -- BITLEN m, -- MODULUS rrm -- 1<<(n*2) % m } end function mpz m = mpz_init("750791094644726559640638407699"), x1 = mpz_init("540019781128412936473322405310"), x2 = mpz_init("515692107665463680305819378593"), t1 = mpz_init(), t2 = mpz_init() sequence mont = Montgomery(m) mpz_mul(t1,x1,mont[RRM]) mpz_mul(t2,x2,mont[RRM]) mpz r1 = reduce(mont,t1), r2 = reduce(mont,t2), r = mpz_init() mpz_ui_pow_ui(r,2,mont[BITLEN]) printf(1,"b : %d\n", {mont[BASE]}) printf(1,"n : %d\n", {mont[BITLEN]}) printf(1,"r : %s\n", {mpz_get_str(r)}) printf(1,"m : %s\n", {mpz_get_str(mont[MODULUS])}) printf(1,"t1: %s\n", {mpz_get_str(t1)}) printf(1,"t2: %s\n", {mpz_get_str(t2)}) printf(1,"r1: %s\n", {mpz_get_str(r1)}) printf(1,"r2: %s\n", {mpz_get_str(r2)}) printf(1,"\n") printf(1,"Original x1 : %s\n", {mpz_get_str(x1)}) printf(1,"Recovered from r1 : %s\n", {mpz_get_str(reduce(mont,r1))}) printf(1,"Original x2 : %s\n", {mpz_get_str(x2)}) printf(1,"Recovered from r2 : %s\n", {mpz_get_str(reduce(mont,r2))}) printf(1,"\nMontgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :") mpz prod = reduce(mont,mont[RRM]) mpz_mul(r,x1,mont[RRM]) mpz base = reduce(mont,r), expn = mpz_init_set(x2) while mpz_cmp_si(expn,0)!=0 do if mpz_odd(expn) then mpz_mul(prod,prod,base) prod = reduce(mont,prod) end if {} = mpz_fdiv_q_ui(expn,expn,2) mpz_mul(base,base,base) base = reduce(mont,base) end while printf(1,"%s\n",{mpz_get_str(reduce(mont,prod))}) printf(1," alternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :") mpz_powm(r,x1,x2,m) printf(1,"%s\n",{mpz_get_str(r)})  {{out}}  b : 2 n : 100 r : 1267650600228229401496703205376 m : 750791094644726559640638407699 t1: 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100 t2: 308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730 r1: 440160025148131680164261562101 r2: 435362628198191204145287283255 Original x1 : 540019781128412936473322405310 Recovered from r1 : 540019781128412936473322405310 Original x2 : 515692107665463680305819378593 Recovered from r2 : 515692107665463680305819378593 Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :151232511393500655853002423778 alternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :151232511393500655853002423778  ## PicoLisp (de **Mod (X Y N) (let M 1 (loop (when (bit? 1 Y) (setq M (% (* M X) N)) ) (T (=0 (setq Y (>> 1 Y))) M) (setq X (% (* X X) N)) ) ) ) (de rrm (M) (% (>> (- (* 2 Mbins)) 1) M) ) (de reduce (A) (do Mbins (and (bit? 1 A) (inc 'A M)) (setq A (>> 1 A)) ) (and (>= A M) (dec 'A M)) A ) (let (M 750791094644726559640638407699 Mbins (length (bin M)) RRM (rrm M) X1 540019781128412936473322405310 X2 515692107665463680305819378593 T1 (* X1 RRM) T2 (* X2 RRM) R1 (reduce T1) R2 (reduce T2) R (>> (- Mbins) 1) Prod (reduce RRM) Base (reduce (* X1 RRM)) Exp X2 ) (println 'b ': 2) (println 'n ': Mbins) (println 'r ': R) (println 'm ': M) (println 't1 ': T1) (println 't2 ': T2) (println 'r1 ': R1) (println 'r2 ': R2) (prinl) (prinl "Original x1 : " X1) (prinl "Recovered from r1 : " (reduce R1)) (prinl "Original x2 : " X2) (prinl "Recovered from r2 : " (reduce R2)) (prinl) (prin "Montgomery computation of x1 \^ x2 mod m : ") (while (gt0 Exp) (and (bit? 1 Exp) (setq Prod (reduce (* Prod Base))) ) (setq Exp (>> 1 Exp) Base (reduce (* Base Base)) ) ) (prinl (reduce Prod)) (prinl "Montgomery computation of x1 \^ x2 mod m : " (**Mod X1 X2 M)) )  {{out}} b : 2 n : 100 r : 1267650600228229401496703205376 m : 750791094644726559640638407699 t1 : 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100 t2 : 308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730 r1 : 440160025148131680164261562101 r2 : 435362628198191204145287283255 Original x1 : 540019781128412936473322405310 Recovered from r1 : 540019781128412936473322405310 Original x2 : 515692107665463680305819378593 Recovered from r2 : 515692107665463680305819378593 Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m : 151232511393500655853002423778 Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m : 151232511393500655853002423778  ## Python {{trans|D}} class Montgomery: BASE = 2 def __init__(self, m): self.m = m self.n = m.bit_length() self.rrm = (1 << (self.n * 2)) % m def reduce(self, t): a = t for i in xrange(self.n): if (a & 1) == 1: a = a + self.m a = a >> 1 if a >= self.m: a = a - self.m return a # Main m = 750791094644726559640638407699 x1 = 540019781128412936473322405310 x2 = 515692107665463680305819378593 mont = Montgomery(m) t1 = x1 * mont.rrm t2 = x2 * mont.rrm r1 = mont.reduce(t1) r2 = mont.reduce(t2) r = 1 << mont.n print "b : ", Montgomery.BASE print "n : ", mont.n print "r : ", r print "m : ", mont.m print "t1: ", t1 print "t2: ", t2 print "r1: ", r1 print "r2: ", r2 print print "Original x1 :", x1 print "Recovered from r1 :", mont.reduce(r1) print "Original x2 :", x2 print "Recovered from r2 :", mont.reduce(r2) print "\nMontgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:" prod = mont.reduce(mont.rrm) base = mont.reduce(x1 * mont.rrm) exp = x2 while exp.bit_length() > 0: if (exp & 1) == 1: prod = mont.reduce(prod * base) exp = exp >> 1 base = mont.reduce(base * base) print mont.reduce(prod) print "\nAlternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m :" print pow(x1, x2, m)  {{out}} b : 2 n : 100 r : 1267650600228229401496703205376 m : 750791094644726559640638407699 t1: 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100 t2: 308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730 r1: 440160025148131680164261562101 r2: 435362628198191204145287283255 Original x1 : 540019781128412936473322405310 Recovered from r1 : 540019781128412936473322405310 Original x2 : 515692107665463680305819378593 Recovered from r2 : 515692107665463680305819378593 Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778 Alternate computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m : 151232511393500655853002423778  ## Racket #lang typed/racket (require math/number-theory) (: montgomery-reduce-fn (-> Positive-Integer Natural [#:m-dash Natural] (Nonnegative-Integer Natural -> Integer))) (: ith-digit (Integer Nonnegative-Integer Natural -> Nonnegative-Integer)) (define (ith-digit a i b) (modulo (quotient a (expt b i)) b)) (: m-dash (Integer Integer -> Natural)) (define (m-dash m b) ; for if you want to precompute it yourself (modular-inverse (- m) b)) (define ((montgomery-reduce-fn m b #:m-dash (m′ (m-dash m b))) T n) (define A (for/fold : Nonnegative-Integer ((A : Nonnegative-Integer T)) ((i : Nonnegative-Integer (in-range n))) (let* ((a_i (ith-digit A i b)) (u_i (modulo (* a_i m′) b))) (+ A (* u_i m (expt b i)))))) (define A/b^n (quotient A (expt b n))) (if (>= A/b^n m) (- A/b^n m) A/b^n)) ; --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- (module+ test (require typed/rackunit) (check-equal? (ith-digit 1234 0 10) 4) (check-equal? (ith-digit 1234 3 10) 1) ;; e.g. ripped off from {{trans|Go}} (let ((b 2) (n 100) (r 1267650600228229401496703205376) (m 750791094644726559640638407699) (T1 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100) (T2 308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730) (R1 440160025148131680164261562101) (R2 435362628198191204145287283255) (x1 540019781128412936473322405310) (x2 515692107665463680305819378593)) (define mr (montgomery-reduce-fn m b)) (check-equal? (mr R1 n) x1) (check-equal? (mr R2 n) x2)))  Tests, which are courtesy of #Go implementation, all pass. ## Sidef {{trans|zkl}} func montgomeryReduce(m, a) { { a += m if a.is_odd a >>= 1 } * m.as_bin.len a % m } var m = 750791094644726559640638407699 var t1 = 323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100 var r1 = 440160025148131680164261562101 var r2 = 435362628198191204145287283255 var x1 = 540019781128412936473322405310 var x2 = 515692107665463680305819378593 say("Original x1: ", x1) say("Recovererd from r1: ", montgomeryReduce(m, r1)) say("Original x2: ", x2) say("Recovererd from r2: ", montgomeryReduce(m, r2)) print("\nMontgomery computation of x1^x2 mod m: ") var prod = montgomeryReduce(m, t1/x1) var base = montgomeryReduce(m, t1) for (var exponent = x2; exponent ; exponent >>= 1) { prod = montgomeryReduce(m, prod * base) if exponent.is_odd base = montgomeryReduce(m, base * base) } say(montgomeryReduce(m, prod)) say("Library-based computation of x1^x2 mod m: ", x1.powmod(x2, m))  {{out}}  Original x1: 540019781128412936473322405310 Recovererd from r1: 540019781128412936473322405310 Original x2: 515692107665463680305819378593 Recovererd from r2: 515692107665463680305819378593 Montgomery computation of x1^x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778 Library-based computation of x1^x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778  ## Tcl {{in progress|lang=Tcl|day=25|month=06|year=2012}} package require Tcl 8.5 proc montgomeryReduction {m mDash T n {b 2}} { set A$T
for {set i 0} {$i <$n} {incr i} {
# Could be simplified for cases b==2 and b==10
for {set j 0;set a $A} {$j < $i} {incr j} { set a [expr {$a / $b}] } set ui [expr {($a % $b) *$mDash % $b}] incr A [expr {$ui * $m *$b**$i}] } set A [expr {$A / ($b **$n)}]
return [expr {$A >=$m ? $A -$m : \$A}]
}


## zkl

{{Trans|Go}} Uses GMP (GNU Multi Precision library).

var [const] BN=Import("zklBigNum");  // libGMP

fcn montgomeryReduce(modulus,T){
_assert_(modulus.isOdd);
a:=BN(T);	// we'll do in place math
do(modulus.len(2)){  // bits needed to hold modulus
a.div(2);  // a>>=1
}
if(a>=modulus) a.sub(modulus);
a
}

    // magic numbers from the Go solution
//b:= 2;
//n:= 100;
//r:= BN("1267650600228229401496703205376");
m:= BN("750791094644726559640638407699");

t1:=BN("323165824550862327179367294465482435542970161392400401329100");
t2:=BN("308607334419945011411837686695175944083084270671482464168730");

r1:=BN("440160025148131680164261562101");
r2:=BN("435362628198191204145287283255");

x1:=BN("540019781128412936473322405310");
x2:=BN("515692107665463680305819378593");

// now demonstrate that it works:
println("Original x1:       ", x1);
println("Recovererd from r1:",montgomeryReduce(m,r1));
println("Original x2:       ", x2);
println("Recovererd from r2:", montgomeryReduce(m,r2));

// and demonstrate a use:
print("\nMontgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:    ");
// this is the modular exponentiation algorithm, except we call
// montgomeryReduce instead of using a mod function.
prod:=montgomeryReduce(m,t1/x1);	// 1
base:=montgomeryReduce(m,t1);		// x1^1
exp :=BN(x2);			        // not reduced
while(exp){
if(exp.isOdd) prod=montgomeryReduce(m,prod.mul(base));
exp.div(2);  // exp>>=1
base=montgomeryReduce(m,base.mul(base));
}
println(montgomeryReduce(m,prod));
println("Library-based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m: ",x1.powm(x2,m));


{{out}}


Original x1:       540019781128412936473322405310
Recovererd from r1:540019781128412936473322405310
Original x2:       515692107665463680305819378593
Recovererd from r2:515692107665463680305819378593

Montgomery computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m:    151232511393500655853002423778
Library-based computation of x1 ^ x2 mod m: 151232511393500655853002423778