⚠️ Warning: This is a draft ⚠️

This means it might contain formatting issues, incorrect code, conceptual problems, or other severe issues.

If you want to help to improve and eventually enable this page, please fork RosettaGit's repository and open a merge request on GitHub.

;Task: Expand the range description: -6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20

Note that the second element above, is the '''range from minus 3 to ''minus'' 1'''.

• [[Range extraction]]

## 11l

{{trans|Python}}

```F rangeexpand(txt)
Array[Int] lst
L(r) txt.split(‘,’)
I ‘-’ C r[1..]
V rr = r[1..].split(‘-’, 2)
lst [+]= Int(r[0]‘’rr[0]) .. Int(rr[1])
E
lst.append(Int(r))
R lst

print(rangeexpand(‘-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20’))
```

## 8th

```\ Given a low and high limit, create an array containing the numbers in the
\ range, inclusive:
: n:gen-range \ low hi -- a
\ make sure they are in order:
2dup n:> if swap then
\ fill the array with the values:
[] ' a:push
2swap loop ;

\ Take a string, either "X" or "X-Y", and correctly return either a number (if
\ "X") or an array of numbers (if "X-Y"):
: n:expand-one \ s -- n | a[n,..m]
\ First see if we can parse a number.  This works in the "X" case:
dup >n null? if
\ Failed >n because it's (possibly) "X-Y"
drop
\ not a valid number, might be a range
\ We'll use a capturing regex to handle the different cases correctly:
/(-?[0-9]+)-(-?[0-9]+)/ tuck r:match

\ If the regex matches three (the whole string, plus the two captured
\ expressions) then it's a valid "X-Y":
3 n:= if
1 r:@ >n swap 2 r:@ >n nip
\ generate the range:
n:gen-range
else
\ The regex didn't match, so we got garbage.  Therefore, return a 'null':
drop null
then
else
\ It was a "X", just drop the original string:
nip
then
;

\ Take an array (possibly) containing other arrays, and flatten any contained
\ arrays so the result is a simple array:
: a:flatten \ a1 -- a2
[] >r
(
nip
array?  if
a:flatten r> swap a:+ >r
else
r> swap a:push >r
then
) a:each drop r> ;

\ Take a comma-delimited string of ranges, and expand it into an array of
\ numbers:
: n:range-expand \ str -- a
"," s:/
' n:expand-one a:map
a:flatten ;

\ Process a list:
"-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
n:range-expand
\ print the expanded list:
. cr bye
```

{{out}}

```
[-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]

```

The function Expand takes a string and returns a corresponding array of integers. Upon syntax errors Constraint_Error is propagated:

```with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO;
procedure Test_Range_Expansion is
type Sequence is array (Positive range <>) of Integer;
function Expand (Text : String) return Sequence is
To    : Integer := Text'First;
Count : Natural := 0;
Low   : Integer;
function Get return Integer is
From : Integer := To;
begin
if Text (To) = '-' then
To := To + 1;
end if;
while To <= Text'Last loop
case Text (To) is
when ',' | '-' => exit;
when others => To := To + 1;
end case;
end loop;
return Integer'Value (Text (From..To - 1));
end Get;
begin
while To <= Text'Last loop -- Counting items of the list
Low := Get;
if To > Text'Last or else Text (To) = ',' then
Count := Count + 1;
else
To := To + 1;
Count := Count + Get - Low + 1;
end if;
To := To + 1;
end loop;
return Result : Sequence (1..Count) do
Count := 0;
To := Text'First;
while To <= Text'Last loop -- Filling the list
Low := Get;
if To > Text'Last or else Text (To) = ',' then
Count := Count + 1;
Result (Count) := Low;
else
To := To + 1;
for Item in Low..Get loop
Count := Count + 1;
Result (Count) := Item;
end loop;
end if;
To := To + 1;
end loop;
end return;
end Expand;
procedure Put (S : Sequence) is
First : Boolean := True;
begin
for I in S'Range loop
if First then
First := False;
else
Put (',');
end if;
Put (Integer'Image (S (I)));
end loop;
end Put;
begin
Put (Expand ("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"));
end Test_Range_Expansion;
```

{{out}}

```
-6,-3,-2,-1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

## Aime

{{incorrect|Aime|Needs "a comma separated list" without the trailing comma}}

```list l;

file().b_affix("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20").news(l, 0, 0, ",");
for (, text s in l) {
integer a, b, p;

p = b_frame(s, '-');
if (p < 1) {
o_(s, ",");
} else {
p -= s[p - 1] == '-' ? 1 : 0;
a = s.cut(0, p).atoi;
b = s.erase(0, p).atoi;
do {
o_(a, ",");
} while ((a += 1) <= b);
}
}

o_("\n");
```

or:

```integer p;
list l;

file().b_affix("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20").news(l, 0, 0, ",");
for (, text s in l) {
if ((p = b_frame(s, '-')) < 1) {
o_(s, ",");
} else {
p -= s[p - 1] == '-' ? 1 : 0;
call_s(o_, 0, s.cut(0, p).atoi, s.erase(0, p).atoi + 1, 1, ",");
}
}

o_("\n");
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20,
```

## ALGOL 68

{{works with|ALGOL 68|Revision 1 - no extensions to language used}} {{works with|ALGOL 68G|Any - tested with release [http://sourceforge.net/projects/algol68/files/algol68g/algol68g-1.18.0/algol68g-1.18.0-9h.tiny.el5.centos.fc11.i386.rpm/download 1.18.0-9h.tiny] - string parsing and formatting code tested with 2.6.win32}} {{works with|ELLA ALGOL 68|Any (with appropriate job cards) - tested with release [http://sourceforge.net/projects/algol68/files/algol68toc/algol68toc-1.8.8d/algol68toc-1.8-8d.fc9.i386.rpm/download 1.8-8d]}}

```MODE YIELDINT = PROC(INT)VOID;

MODE RANGE = STRUCT(INT lwb, upb);
MODE RANGEINT = UNION(RANGE, INT);

OP SIZEOF = ([]RANGEINT list)INT: (
# determine the length of the output array #
INT upb := LWB list - 1;
FOR key FROM LWB list TO UPB list DO
CASE list[key] IN
(RANGE value): upb +:= upb OF value - lwb OF value + 1,
(INT): upb +:= 1
ESAC
OD;
upb
);

PROC gen range expand = ([]RANGEINT list, YIELDINT yield)VOID:
FOR key FROM LWB list TO UPB list DO
CASE list[key] IN
(RANGE range): FOR value FROM lwb OF range TO upb OF range DO yield(value) OD,
(INT int): yield(int)
ESAC
OD;

PROC range expand = ([]RANGEINT list)[]INT: (
[LWB list: LWB list + SIZEOF list - 1]INT out;
INT upb := LWB out - 1;
# FOR INT value IN # gen range expand(list, # ) DO #
##   (INT value)VOID:
out[upb +:= 1] := value
# OD #);
out
);

#
test:(
[]RANGEINT list = (-6, RANGE(-3, -1), RANGE(3, 5),  RANGE(7, 11), 14, 15, RANGE(17, 20));
print((range expand(list), new line))
)
#

# converts string containing a comma-separated list of ranges and values to a []RANGEINT #
OP TORANGE = ( STRING s )[]RANGEINT:
BEGIN

# counts the number of elements - one more than the number of commas #
# and so assumes there is always at least one element                #
PROC count elements = INT:
BEGIN

INT    elements := 1;

FOR pos FROM LWB s TO UPB s
DO
IF s[ pos ] = ","
THEN
elements +:= 1
FI
OD;

# RESULT #
elements
END; # count elements #

REF[]RANGEINT result = HEAP [ 1 : count elements ]RANGEINT;

# does the actual parsing - assumes the string is syntatically valid and doesn't check for errors #
# - in particular, a string with no elements will cause problems, as will space characters in the string #
PROC parse range string = []RANGEINT:
BEGIN

INT  element := 0;
INT  str pos := 1;

PROC next       = VOID: str pos +:= 1;
PROC curr char  = CHAR: IF str pos > UPB s THEN "?" ELSE s[ str pos ] FI;
PROC have minus = BOOL: curr char = "-";
PROC have digit = BOOL: curr char >= "0" AND curr char <= "9";

# parses a number out of the string #
# the number must be a sequence of digits with an optional leading minus sign #
PROC get number = INT:
BEGIN

INT number := 0;

INT sign multiplier = IF have minus
THEN
# negaive number #
# skip the sign #
next;
-1
ELSE
# positive number #
1
FI;

WHILE curr char >= "0" AND curr char <= "9"
DO
number *:= 10;
number +:= ( ABS curr char - ABS "0" );
next
OD;

# RESULT #
number * sign multiplier
END; # get number #

# main parsing #
WHILE str pos <= UPB s
DO
CHAR c = curr char;

IF have minus OR have digit
THEN
# have the start of a number #
INT from value = get number;
element +:= 1;
IF NOT have minus
THEN
# not a range #
result[ element ] := from value
ELSE
# have a range #
next;
INT to value = get number;
result[ element ] := RANGE( from value, to value )
FI
ELSE
# should be a comma #
next
FI
OD;

# RESULT #
result
END; # parse range string #

# RESULT #
parse range string
END; # TORANGE #

# converts a []INT to a comma separated string of the elements #
OP TOSTRING = ( []INT values )STRING:
BEGIN

STRING result    := "";
STRING separator := "";

FOR pos FROM LWB values TO UPB values
DO
result +:= ( separator + whole( values[ pos ], 0 ) );
separator := ","
OD;

# RESULT #
result
END; # TOSTRING #

test:(
print( ( TOSTRING range expand( TORANGE "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20" ), newline ) )
)

```

{{out}}

```
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## AppleScript

{{Trans|JavaScript}} (Functional ES5 version)

```-- Each comma-delimited string is mapped to a list of integers,
-- and these integer lists are concatenated together into a single list

-- expansion :: String -> [Int]
on expansion(strExpr)
-- The string (between commas) is split on hyphens,
-- and this segmentation is rewritten to ranges or minus signs
-- and evaluated to lists of integer values

-- signedRange :: String -> [Int]
script signedRange
-- After the first character, numbers preceded by an
-- empty string (resulting from splitting on hyphens)
-- and interpreted as negative

-- signedIntegerAppended:: [Int] -> String -> Int -> [Int] -> [Int]
on signedIntegerAppended(lstAccumulator, strNum, iPosn, lst)
if strNum ≠ "" then
if iPosn > 1 then
if length of (item (iPosn - 1) of lst) > 0 then
set strSign to ""
else
set strSign to "-"
end if
else
set strSign to "+"
end if
lstAccumulator & ((strSign & strNum) as integer)
else
lstAccumulator
end if
end signedIntegerAppended

on |λ|(strHyphenated)
tupleRange(foldl(signedIntegerAppended, {}, ¬
splitOn("-", strHyphenated)))
end |λ|
end script

concatMap(signedRange, splitOn(",", strExpr))
end expansion

-- TEST -----------------------------------------------------------------------
on run

expansion("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")

--> {-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20}
end run

-- GENERIC FUNCTIONS ----------------------------------------------------------

-- concatMap :: (a -> [b]) -> [a] -> [b]
on concatMap(f, xs)
script append
on |λ|(a, b)
a & b
end |λ|
end script

foldl(append, {}, map(f, xs))
end concatMap

-- enumFromTo :: Int -> Int -> [Int]
on enumFromTo(m, n)
if n < m then
set d to -1
else
set d to 1
end if
set lst to {}
repeat with i from m to n by d
set end of lst to i
end repeat
return lst
end enumFromTo

-- foldl :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> [b] -> a
on foldl(f, startValue, xs)
tell mReturn(f)
set v to startValue
set lng to length of xs
repeat with i from 1 to lng
set v to |λ|(v, item i of xs, i, xs)
end repeat
return v
end tell
end foldl

-- map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
on map(f, xs)
tell mReturn(f)
set lng to length of xs
set lst to {}
repeat with i from 1 to lng
set end of lst to |λ|(item i of xs, i, xs)
end repeat
return lst
end tell
end map

-- Lift 2nd class handler function into 1st class script wrapper
-- mReturn :: Handler -> Script
on mReturn(f)
if class of f is script then
f
else
script
property |λ| : f
end script
end if
end mReturn

-- splitOn :: Text -> Text -> [Text]
on splitOn(strDelim, strMain)
set {dlm, my text item delimiters} to {my text item delimiters, strDelim}
set xs to text items of strMain
set my text item delimiters to dlm
return xs
end splitOn

-- range :: (Int, Int) -> [Int]
on tupleRange(tuple)
if tuple = {} then
{}
else if length of tuple > 1 then
enumFromTo(item 1 of tuple, item 2 of tuple)
else
item 1 of tuple
end if
end tupleRange
```

{{Out}}

```{-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20}
```

## AutoHotkey

```msgbox % expand("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")

expand( range ) {
p := 0
while p := RegExMatch(range, "\s*(-?\d++)(?:\s*-\s*(-?\d++))?", f, p+1+StrLen(f))
loop % (f2 ? f2-f1 : 0) + 1
ret .= "," (A_Index-1) + f1
return SubStr(ret, 2)
}
```

## AWK

```#!/usr/bin/awk -f
BEGIN {	FS=","; }

{	s="";
for (i=1; i<=NF; i++) { expand(\$i); }
print substr(s,2);
}

function expand(a) {
idx = match(a,/[0-9]-/);
if (idx==0) {
s = s","a;
return;
}

start= substr(a,1, idx)+0;
stop = substr(a,idx+2)+0;
for (m = start; m <= stop; m++) {
s = s","m;
}
return;
}
```
```
Usage:
echo -6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20  | gawk -f ./range_expansion.awk
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## BBC BASIC

```      PRINT FNrangeexpand("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
END

DEF FNrangeexpand(r\$)
LOCAL i%, j%, k%, t\$
REPEAT
i% = INSTR(r\$, "-", i%+1)
IF i% THEN
j% = i%
WHILE MID\$(r\$,j%-1,1)<>"," AND j%<>1
j% -= 1
ENDWHILE
IF i%>j% IF MID\$(r\$,j%,i%-j%)<>STRING\$(i%-j%," ") THEN
t\$ = ""
FOR k% = VALMID\$(r\$,j%) TO VALMID\$(r\$,i%+1)-1
t\$ += STR\$(k%) + ","
NEXT
r\$ = LEFT\$(r\$,j%-1) + t\$ + MID\$(r\$,i%+1)
i% = j% + LEN(t\$) + 2
ENDIF
ENDIF
UNTIL i% = 0
= r\$
```

{{out}}

```
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## Bracmat

```  ( expandRanges
=   a b L
.     @( !arg
:   (#(?a:?b)|#?a "-" #?b)
(:?L|"," [%(expandRanges\$!sjt:?L))
)
&   whl
' (   (!L:&!b|(!b,!L))
: ?L
& -1+!b:~<!a:?b
)
& !L
|
)
& out\$(str\$(expandRanges\$"-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"))

```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

## C

Recursive descent parser.

```#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <ctype.h>

/* BNFesque
rangelist := (range | number) [',' rangelist]
range := number '-' number	*/

int get_list(const char *, char **);
int get_rnge(const char *, char **);

/* parser only parses; what to do with parsed items is up to
* the add_number and and_range functions */
int add_range(int x, int y);

#define skip_space while(isspace(*s)) s++
#define get_number(x, s, e) (x = strtol(s, e, 10), *e != s)
int get_list(const char *s, char **e)
{
int x;
while (1) {
skip_space;
if (!get_rnge(s, e) && !get_number(x, s, e)) break;
s = *e;

skip_space;
if ((*s) == '\0') { putchar('\n'); return 1; }
if ((*s) == ',')  { s++; continue; }
break;
}
*(const char **)e = s;
printf("\nSyntax error at %s\n", s);
return 0;
}

int get_rnge(const char *s, char **e)
{
int x, y;
char *ee;
if (!get_number(x, s, &ee)) return 0;
s = ee;

skip_space;
if (*s != '-') {
*(const char **)e = s;
return 0;
}
s++;
if(!get_number(y, s, e)) return 0;
}

{
printf("%d ", x);
}

int add_range(int x, int y)
{
if (y <= x) return 0;
while (x <= y) printf("%d ", x++);
return 1;
}

int main()
{
char *end;

/* this is correct */
if (get_list("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20", &end)) puts("Ok");

/* this is not.  note the subtle error: "-6 -3" is parsed
* as range(-6, 3), so synax error comes after that */
get_list("-6 -3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20", &end);

return 0;
}
```

{{out}}

```-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20
Ok
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Syntax error at --1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20
```

## C#

{{works with|C sharp|3.0}}

```using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;

class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
var rangeString = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20";
var matches = Regex.Matches(rangeString, @"(?<f>-?\d+)-(?<s>-?\d+)|(-?\d+)");
var values = new List<string>();

foreach (var m in matches.OfType<Match>())
{
if (m.Groups[1].Success)
{
continue;
}

var start = Convert.ToInt32(m.Groups["f"].Value);
var end = Convert.ToInt32(m.Groups["s"].Value) + 1;

values.AddRange(Enumerable.Range(start, end - start).Select(v => v.ToString()));
}

Console.WriteLine(string.Join(", ", values));
}
}
```

{{works with|C sharp|3.5+}}

```using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

namespace RangeExpansion {
internal static class StringExtensions {
internal static IEnumerable<int> ExpandRange(this string s) {
return s.Split(',')
.Select(rstr => {
int start;
if (int.TryParse(rstr, out start))
return new {Start = start, End = start};
var istr = new string(("+-".Any(_ => rstr[0] == _)
? rstr.Take(1).Concat(rstr.Skip(1).TakeWhile(char.IsDigit))
: rstr.TakeWhile(char.IsDigit)
).ToArray());
rstr = rstr.Substring(istr.Length + 1, (rstr.Length - istr.Length) - 1);
return new {Start = int.Parse(istr), End = int.Parse(rstr)};
}).SelectMany(_ => Enumerable.Range(_.Start, _.End - _.Start + 1));
}
}

internal static class Program {
private static void Main() {
const string RANGE_STRING = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20";
var values = RANGE_STRING.ExpandRange().ToList();
var vstr = string.Join(", ", values.Select(_ => _.ToString()));
Console.WriteLine(vstr);
}
}
}
```

## C++

```#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <iterator>
#include <climits>
#include <deque>

// parse a list of numbers with ranges
//
// arguments:
//  is:  the stream to parse
//  out: the output iterator the parsed list is written to.
//
// returns true if the parse was successful. false otherwise
template<typename OutIter>
bool parse_number_list_with_ranges(std::istream& is, OutIter out)
{
int number;
// the list always has to start with a number
while (is >> number)
{
*out++ = number;

char c;
if (is >> c)
switch(c)
{
case ',':
continue;
case '-':
{
int number2;
if (is >> number2)
{
if (number2 < number)
return false;
while (number < number2)
*out++ = ++number;
char c2;
if (is >> c2)
if (c2 == ',')
continue;
else
return false;
else
return is.eof();
}
else
return false;
}
default:
return is.eof();
}
else
return is.eof();
}
// if we get here, something went wrong (otherwise we would have
// returned from inside the loop)
return false;
}

int main()
{
std::istringstream example("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20");
std::deque<int> v;
bool success = parse_number_list_with_ranges(example, std::back_inserter(v));
if (success)
{
std::copy(v.begin(), v.end()-1,
std::ostream_iterator<int>(std::cout, ","));
std::cout << v.back() << "\n";
}
else
std::cout << "an error occured.";
}
```

{{out}} -6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

## Clojure

There is a split method in clojure.contrib, but I don't know if it is able to skip first character to so that `(split "-8--8") => (-8 -8)`.

```(defn split [s sep]
(defn skipFirst [[x & xs :as s]]
(cond (empty? s) [nil nil]
(= x sep)  [x xs]
true       [nil s]))
(loop [lst '(), s s]
(if (empty? s) (reverse lst)
(let [[hd trunc] (skipFirst s)
[word news] (split-with #(not= % sep) trunc)
cWord (cons hd word)]
(recur (cons (apply str cWord) lst)
(apply str (rest news)))))))

(defn parseRange [[x & xs :as s]]
(if (some #(= % \-) xs)
(let [[r0 r1] (split s \-)]
(list (read-string (str s))))))

(defn rangeexpand [s]
(flatten (map parseRange (split s \,))))

> (rangeexpand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
(-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20)
```

## COBOL

{{works with|GNU Cobol|2.0}}

```SOURCE FREE
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. expand-range.

DATA DIVISION.
WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.
01  comma-pos                           PIC 99 COMP VALUE 1.
01  dash-pos                            PIC 99 COMP.
01  end-num                             PIC S9(3).
01  Max-Part-Len                        CONSTANT 10.
01  num                                 PIC S9(3).
01  edited-num                          PIC -(3)9.
01  part                                PIC X(10).

01  part-flag                           PIC X.
88 last-part                        VALUE "Y".

01  range-str                           PIC X(80).
01  Range-Str-Len                       CONSTANT 80.
01  start-pos                           PIC 99 COMP.
01  start-num                           PIC S9(3).

PROCEDURE DIVISION.
ACCEPT range-str

PERFORM WITH TEST AFTER UNTIL last-part
UNSTRING range-str DELIMITED BY "," INTO part WITH POINTER comma-pos
PERFORM check-if-last

PERFORM find-range-dash

IF dash-pos > Max-Part-Len
PERFORM display-num
ELSE
PERFORM display-range
END-IF
END-PERFORM

DISPLAY SPACES

GOBACK
.
check-if-last SECTION.
IF comma-pos > Range-Str-Len
SET last-part TO TRUE
END-IF
.
find-range-dash SECTION.
IF part (1:1) <> "-"
MOVE 1 TO start-pos
ELSE
MOVE 2 TO start-pos
END-IF

MOVE 1 TO dash-pos
INSPECT part (start-pos:) TALLYING dash-pos FOR CHARACTERS BEFORE "-"
COMPUTE dash-pos = dash-pos + start-pos - 1
.
display-num SECTION.
MOVE part TO edited-num
CALL "display-edited-num" USING CONTENT part-flag, edited-num
.
display-range SECTION.
MOVE part (1:dash-pos - 1) TO start-num
MOVE part (dash-pos + 1:) TO end-num

PERFORM VARYING num FROM start-num BY 1 UNTIL num = end-num
MOVE num TO edited-num
CALL "display-edited-num" USING CONTENT "N", edited-num
END-PERFORM

MOVE end-num TO edited-num
CALL "display-edited-num" USING CONTENT part-flag, edited-num
.
END PROGRAM expand-range.

IDENTIFICATION DIVISION.
PROGRAM-ID. display-edited-num.

DATA DIVISION.
01  hide-comma-flag                     PIC X.
88  hide-comma                      VALUE "Y".
01  edited-num                          PIC -(3)9.

PROCEDURE DIVISION USING hide-comma-flag, edited-num.
DISPLAY FUNCTION TRIM(edited-num) NO ADVANCING
IF NOT hide-comma
DISPLAY ", " NO ADVANCING
END-IF
.
END PROGRAM display-edited-num.
```

Setup:

```
\$ ./expand-range
-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20

```

{{out}}

```
-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

## Common Lisp

```(defun expand-ranges (string)
(loop
with prevnum = nil
for idx = 0 then (1+ nextidx)
for (number nextidx) = (multiple-value-list
(parse-integer string
:start idx :junk-allowed t))
append (cond
(prevnum
(prog1
(loop for i from prevnum to number
collect i)
(setf prevnum nil)))
((and (< nextidx (length string))
(char= (aref string nextidx) #\-))
(setf prevnum number)
nil)
(t
(list number)))
while (< nextidx (length string))))

CL-USER> (expand-ranges "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
(-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20)
```

## D

```import std.stdio, std.regex, std.conv, std.range, std.algorithm;

enum rangeEx = (string s) /*pure*/ => s.matchAll(`(-?\d+)-?(-?\d+)?,?`)
.map!q{ a[1].to!int.iota(a[1 + !a[2].empty].to!int + 1) }.join;

void main() {
"-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20".rangeEx.writeln;
}
```

{{out}}

```[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]
```

## DWScript

```
function ExpandRanges(ranges : String) : array of Integer;
begin
for var range in ranges.Split(',') do begin
var separator = range.IndexOf('-', 2);
if separator > 0 then begin
for var i := range.Left(separator-1).ToInteger to range.Copy(separator+1).ToInteger do
end else begin
end;
end;
end;

var expanded := ExpandRanges('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20');
PrintLn(JSON.Stringify(expanded));

```

{{out}}

```[-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]
```

## Dyalect

{{trans|Go}}

```func main() {
const input = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"

print("range: \(input)")
var r = []
var last = 0
for part in input.split(',') {
var i = part.sub(1).indexOf('-')
if  i == -1 {
var n = Integer(part)
if r.len() > 0 {
if last == n {
print("duplicate value: \(n)")
return
} else if last > n {
print("values not ordered: \(last) > \(n)")
return
}
}
last = n
} else {
var n1 = Integer(part.sub(0, i+1))
var n2 = Integer(part.sub(i+2))
if n2 < n1+2 {
print("invalid range: \(part)")
return
}
if r.len() > 0 {
if last == n1 {
print("duplicate value: \(n1)")
return
} else if last > n1 {
print("values not ordered: \(last) > \(n1)")
return
}
}
for i in n1..n2 {
}
last = n2
}
}

print("expanded: \(r)")
}

main()
```

{{out}}

```range: -6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20
expanded: [-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]
```

## EchoLisp

```
;; parsing [spaces][-]digit(s)-[-]digit(s)[spaces]
(define R (make-regexp "^ *(\-?\\d+)\-(\-?\\d+) *\$" ))

;; the native (range a b) is [a ... b[
;; (range+ a b) is [a ... b]
(define (range+ a b)
(if (< a b) (range a (1+ b))
(if (> a b) (range a (1- b) -1)
(list a))))

;; in : string : "number" or "number-number"
;; out : a range = list of integer(s)
(define (do-range str)
(define from-to (regexp-exec R str)) ;; "1-3" --> ("1" "3")
(if from-to
(range+ (string->number (first from-to)) (string->number (second from-to)))
(list (string->number str))))

(define (ranges str)
(apply append (map do-range (string-split str ","))))

→ (-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20)

```

## Elixir

{{trans|Ruby}}

```defmodule RC do
def expansion(range) do
Enum.flat_map(String.split(range, ","), fn part ->
case Regex.scan(~r/^(-?\d+)-(-?\d+)\$/, part) do
[[_,a,b]] -> Enum.to_list(String.to_integer(a) .. String.to_integer(b))
[] -> [String.to_integer(part)]
end
end)
end
end

IO.inspect RC.expansion("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
```

{{out}}

```
[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]

```

## Erlang

```
-module( range ).

-export( [expansion/1, task/0] ).

expansion( String ) ->
lists:flatten( [expansion_individual(io_lib:fread("~d", X)) || X <- string:tokens(String, ",")] ).

io:fwrite( "~p~n", [expansion("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")] ).

expansion_individual( {ok, [N], []} ) -> N;
expansion_individual( {ok, [Start], "-" ++ Stop_string} ) -> lists:seq( Start, erlang:list_to_integer(Stop_string) ).

```

{{out}}

```
[-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]

```

```open System.Text.RegularExpressions

// simplify regex matching with an active pattern
let (|Regexp|_|) pattern txt =
match Regex.Match(txt, pattern) with
| m when m.Success -> [for g in m.Groups -> g.Value] |> List.tail |> Some
| _                -> None

// Parse and expand a single range description.
// string -> int list
let parseRange r =
match r with
| Regexp @"^(-?\d+)-(-?\d+)\$" [first; last] -> [int first..int last]
| Regexp @"^(-?\d+)\$"         [single]      -> [int single]
| _ -> failwithf "illegal range format: %s" r

let expand (desc:string) =
desc.Split(',')
|> List.ofArray
|> List.collect parseRange

printfn "%A" (expand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
```

{{out}}

```[-6; -3; -2; -1; 3; 4; 5; 7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 14; 15; 17; 18; 19; 20]
```

## Factor

`R/ (?<=\d)-/ re-split` says: ''split only on hyphens immediately preceded by a digit.''

```USING: kernel math.parser math.ranges prettyprint regexp
sequences sequences.extras splitting ;

: expand ( str -- seq )
"," split [
R/ (?<=\d)-/ re-split [ string>number ] map
dup length 2 = [ first2 [a,b] ] when
] map-concat ;

"-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20" expand .
```

{{out}}

```
{ -6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20 }

```

## Forth

```snumber ( str len -- 'str 'len n )
0. 2swap
over c@ [char] - = if
1 /string
>number 2swap drop
negate
else
>number 2swap drop
then ;

: expand ( str len -- )
begin dup while
>snumber >r
dup if over c@ [char] - = if
1 /string
>snumber r> over >r
do i . loop
then then
dup if over c@ [char] , = if
1 /string
then then
r> .
repeat 2drop ;

s" -6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20" expand
```

## Fortran

In order to save on the annoyance of having to declare the type of function ERANGE in each routine that invokes it (just one, here), the F90 MODULE protocol is convenient. F90 also allows for routines to contain service routines that share the context without massive parameter lists or shared COMMON areas, though alternatively, the shared variables could be inside the MODULE which would contain the service routines as separate routines also inside the module. But for this, one should not share variables having short names such as `I`. Otherwise, this would be F77 style except for the usage of the `I0` format code in subroutine SPLOT. If that were unavailable, code `I12` could be used and leading spaces would have to be skipped instead. The DO WHILE loop with its EXIT and labels would have to be less decorative for F77.

The standard problem of "How long is a piece of string?" applies yet again. Arrays and character variables have to be declared with some fixed size, and the usual approach is "surely big enough". The test input is not a problem, because the caller can use the needed size and pass that to ERANGE as a parameter, whatever its size. But function ERANGE's result must have some pre-declared size, and for this example, CHARACTER*200 will do. Via a great deal of blather, varying-size character variables can be defined and used in F90/95, and F2003 has standardised a method of doing this, whereby whenever something like `ALINE = ALINE // "stuff"` is executed, variable ALINE is reallocated with additional space. This involves copying the old content to the newly allocated larger storage area, so doing a lot of this would be bad snowballing.

The method is to grind through the input string expecting to find a ''number'' or a ''number - number'' pair (signed numbers allowed), followed by a comma if more is to follow. The state of the scan is represented by position within the scanning code rather than mess with state variables, so it is convenient to have service routines for the resulting repetition of basic actions. No checks are made for improper input, for instance a string ending with a comma. Those of a delicate disposition may be troubled by functions that don't just return a result but also mess with their parameter and change their environment. Here, the results from the functions assist with the flow of control through the scan, it is the side effects that manipulate the data.

A frustrating problem with many modern computer languages is the absence of a "shortcut" evaluation praxis for logical expressions; in Fortran's case the modern standard is that there is no standard. So a test `I<=LEN(TEXT) & TEXT(I:I)''etc.''` can't be relied upon to dodge out-of-bounds errors, and a flabby two-statement sequence is required instead. Similarly, few Fortran compilers allow for a function being evaluated via a WRITE statement to itself succeed in using a WRITE statement internally, though some do if one usage is free-format and the other formatted. If necessary, subroutine SPLOT could be re-written to convert an integer to a digit string without a WRITE statement, even for negative integers. And some compilers have difficulty with the use of the function name as a variable within the function so that it is safest to develop the result in an ordinary variable and then remember to assign its value to the function name just before exit.

A single number is made internally into a two-number range sequence, which values are used as the bounds for a DO-loop to generate the numbers for output. Despite the '''The range syntax is to be used only for, and for every range that expands to more than two values''', I see no reason for this restriction (say because otherwise some fancy method would be stymied, except I can think of no such fancier method) and I have no desire to interpose some sort of error message, a tedious business that requires a wider interface between a routine and its caller. Similarly, if a range of 40-30 were to appear, why not take it at face value?

```      MODULE HOMEONTHERANGE
CONTAINS	!The key function.
CHARACTER*200 FUNCTION ERANGE(TEXT)	!Expands integer ranges in a list.
Can't return a character value of variable size.
CHARACTER*(*) TEXT	!The list on input.
CHARACTER*200 ALINE	!Scratchpad for output.
INTEGER N,N1,N2	!Numbers in a range.
INTEGER I,I1		!Steppers.
ALINE = ""		!Scrub the scratchpad.
L = 0			!No text has been placed.
I = 1			!Start at the start.
CALL FORASIGN		!Find something to look at.
Chug through another number or number - number range.
R:DO WHILE(EATINT(N1))	!If I can grab a first number, a term has begun.
N2 = N1			!Make the far end the same.
IF (PASSBY("-")) CALL EATINT(N2)	!A hyphen here is not a minus sign.
IF (L.GT.0) CALL EMIT(",")		!Another, after what went before?
DO N = N1,N2,SIGN(+1,N2 - N1)	!Step through the range, possibly backwards.
CALL SPLOT(N)				!Roll a number.
IF (N.NE.N2) CALL EMIT(",")		!Perhaps another follows.
END DO				!On to the next number.
IF (.NOT.PASSBY(",")) EXIT R	!More to come?
END DO R		!So much for a range.
Completed the scan. Just return the result.
ERANGE = ALINE(1:L)	!Present the result. Fiddling ERANGE is bungled by some compilers.
CONTAINS	!Some assistants for the scan to save on repetition and show intent.
SUBROUTINE FORASIGN	!Look for one.
1       IF (I.LE.LEN(TEXT)) THEN	!After a thingy,
IF (TEXT(I:I).LE." ") THEN	!There may follow spaces.
I = I + 1				!So,
GO TO 1					!Speed past any.
END IF			!So that the caller can see
END IF			!Whatever substantive character follows.
END SUBROUTINE FORASIGN	!Simple enough.

LOGICAL FUNCTION PASSBY(C)	!Advances the scan if a certain character is seen.
Could consider or ignore case for letters, but this is really for single symbols.
CHARACTER*1 C	!The character.
PASSBY = .FALSE.	!Pessimism.
IF (I.LE.LEN(TEXT)) THEN	!Can't rely on I.LE.LEN(TEXT) .AND. TEXT(I:I)...
IF (TEXT(I:I).EQ.C) THEN	!Curse possible full evaluation.
PASSBY = .TRUE.		!Righto, C is seen.
I = I + 1		!So advance the scan.
CALL FORASIGN		!And see what follows.
END IF		!So much for a match.
END IF		!If there is something to be uinspected.
END FUNCTION PASSBY	!Can't rely on testing PASSBY within PASSBY either.

LOGICAL FUNCTION EATINT(N)	!Convert text into an integer.
INTEGER N	!The value to be ascertained.
INTEGER D	!A digit.
LOGICAL NEG	!In case of a minus sign.
EATINT = .FALSE.	!Pessimism.
IF (I.GT.LEN(TEXT)) RETURN	!Anything to look at?
N = 0			!Scrub to start with.
IF (PASSBY("+")) THEN	!A plus sign here can be ignored.
NEG = .FALSE.		!So, there's no minus sign.
ELSE			!And if there wasn't a plus,
NEG = PASSBY("-")		!A hyphen here is a minus sign.
END IF			!One way or another, NEG is initialised.
IF (I.GT.LEN(TEXT)) RETURN	!Nothing further! We wuz misled!
Chug through digits. Can develop -2147483648, thanks to the workings of two's complement.
10       D = ICHAR(TEXT(I:I)) - ICHAR("0")	!Hope for a digit.
IF (0.LE.D .AND. D.LE.9) THEN	!Is it one?
N = N*10 + D			!Yes! Assimilate it, negatively.
I = I + 1				!Advance one.
IF (I.LE.LEN(TEXT)) GO TO 10	!And see what comes next.
END IF			!So much for a sequence of digits.
IF (NEG) N = -N		!Apply the minus sign.
EATINT = .TRUE.		!Should really check for at least one digit.
CALL FORASIGN		!Ram into whatever follows.
END FUNCTION EATINT	!Integers are easy. Could check for no digits seen.

SUBROUTINE EMIT(C)	!Rolls forth one character.
CHARACTER*1 C	!The character.
L = L + 1		!Advance the finger.
IF (L.GT.LEN(ALINE)) STOP "Ran out of ALINE!"	!Maybe not.
ALINE(L:L) = C	!And place the character.
END SUBROUTINE EMIT	!That was simple.

SUBROUTINE SPLOT(N)	!Rolls forth a signed number.
INTEGER N		!The number.
CHARACTER*12 FIELD	!Sufficient for 32-bit integers.
INTEGER I		!A stepper.
WRITE (FIELD,"(I0)") N	!Roll the number, with trailing spaces.
DO I = 1,12		!Now transfer the ALINE of the number.
IF (FIELD(I:I).LE." ") EXIT	!Up to the first space.
CALL EMIT(FIELD(I:I))	!One by one.
END DO		!On to the end.
END SUBROUTINE SPLOT	!Not so difficult either.
END FUNCTION ERANGE	!A bit tricky.
END MODULE HOMEONTHERANGE

PROGRAM POKE
USE HOMEONTHERANGE
CHARACTER*(200) SOME
SOME = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
SOME = ERANGE(SOME)
WRITE (6,*) SOME	!If ERANGE(SOME) then the function usually can't write output also.
END
```

Output:

``` -6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

A check by using -2147483648 showed that EATINT develops the correct value even if N is built positively. Adding 8 to 2147483640 VIA `N = N*10 + D` indeed produces -2147483648 (and NEG was '''t'''), but the `IF (NEG) N = -N` still results in -2147483648 because of the working of (flip all bits and add one): invert(-2147483648) = 2147483647, and, adding one to that produces -2147483648.

## FreeBASIC

```' FB 1.05.0 Win64

Sub split (s As Const String, sepList As Const String, result() As String)
If s = "" OrElse sepList = "" Then
Redim result(0)
result(0) = s
Return
End If
Dim As Integer i, j, count = 0, empty = 0, length
Dim As Integer position(Len(s) + 1)
position(0) = 0

For i = 0 To len(s) - 1
For j = 0 to Len(sepList) - 1
If s[i] = sepList[j] Then
count += 1
position(count) = i + 1
End If
Next j
Next i

Redim result(count)
If count  = 0 Then
result(0) = s
Return
End If

position(count + 1) = len(s) + 1

For i = 1 To count + 1
length = position(i) - position(i - 1) - 1
result(i - 1) = Mid(s, position(i - 1) + 1, length)
Next
End Sub

Function expandRange(s As Const String) As String
If s = "" Then Return ""
Dim b() As String
Dim c() As String
Dim result As String = ""
Dim As Integer start = 0, finish = 0, length
split s, ",", b()
For i As Integer = LBound(b) To UBound(b)
split b(i), "-", c()
length = UBound(c) - LBound(c) + 1
If length = 1 Then
start  = ValLng(c(LBound(c)))
finish = start
ElseIf length = 2 Then
If Left(b(i), 1) = "-" Then
start  = -ValLng(c(UBound(c)))
finish = start
Else
start  = ValLng(c(LBound(c)))
finish = ValLng(c(UBound(c)))
End If
ElseIf length = 3 Then
start  = -ValLng(c(LBound(c) + 1))
finish = ValLng(c(UBound(c)))
Else
start  = -ValLng(c(LBound(c) + 1))
finish = -ValLng(c(UBound(c)))
End If
For j As Integer = start To finish
result += Str(j) + ", "
Next j
Next i
Return Left(result, Len(result) - 2) '' get rid of final ", "
End Function

Dim s As String = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
Print expandRange(s)
Print
Print "Press any key to quit"
Sleep
```

{{out}}

```
-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

## Go

A version rather strict with input

```package main

import (
"fmt"
"strconv"
"strings"
)

const input = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"

func main() {
fmt.Println("range:", input)
var r []int
var last int
for _, part := range strings.Split(input, ",") {
if i := strings.Index(part[1:], "-"); i == -1 {
n, err := strconv.Atoi(part)
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
return
}
if len(r) > 0 {
if last == n {
fmt.Println("duplicate value:", n)
return
} else if last > n {
fmt.Println("values not ordered:", last, ">", n)
return
}
}
r = append(r, n)
last = n
} else {
n1, err := strconv.Atoi(part[:i+1])
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
return
}
n2, err := strconv.Atoi(part[i+2:])
if err != nil {
fmt.Println(err)
return
}
if n2 < n1+2 {
fmt.Println("invalid range:", part)
return
}
if len(r) > 0 {
if last == n1 {
fmt.Println("duplicate value:", n1)
return
} else if last > n1 {
fmt.Println("values not ordered:", last, ">", n1)
return
}
}
for i = n1; i <= n2; i++ {
r = append(r, i)
}
last = n2
}
}
fmt.Println("expanded:", r)
}
```

# unwrap the list delimiters

```def expandRanges = { compressed ->
Eval.me('['+compressed.replaceAll(~/(\d)-/, '\$1..')+']').flatten().toString()[1..-2]
}
```

Test:

```def s = '-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'
println (expandRanges(s))
```

{{out}}

```-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20
```

Given either of the below implementations of `expandRange`:

``` expandRange "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
[-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]
```

### With conventional list processing

```expandRange :: String -> [Int]
expandRange = concatMap f . split ','
where f str@(c : cs) | '-' `elem` cs = [read (c : a) .. read b]
| otherwise     = [read str]
where (a, _ : b) = break (== '-') cs

split :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> [[a]]
split delim [] = []
split delim l = a : split delim (dropWhile (== delim) b)
where (a, b) = break (== delim) l
```

### With a parser

```{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts #-}

import Control.Applicative (Applicative((<*>), (*>)), (<\$>))
import Text.Parsec

expandRange :: String -> Maybe [Int]
expandRange = either (const Nothing) Just . parse rangeParser ""

rangeParser
:: (Enum a, Read a, Stream s m Char)
=> ParsecT s u m [a]
rangeParser = concat <\$> (item `sepBy` char ',')
where
item = do
n1 <- num
n2 <- option n1 (char '-' *> num)
return [n1 .. n2]
num = read `dot` (++) <\$> option "" (string "-") <*> many1 digit
dot = (.) . (.)

main :: IO ()
main = print \$ expandRange "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
```

{{Out}}

```Just [-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]
```

```procedure main()
s := "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
write("Input string      := ",s)
write("Expanded list   := ", list2string(range_expand(s)) | "FAILED")
end

procedure range_expand(s)          #: return list of integers extracted from an ordered string representation
local R,low,high
R := []

s ? until pos(0) do {
put(R,low := integer(tab(upto(',-')|0))| fail)           # get lower bound
if ="-" || (high := integer(tab(find(",")|0))|fail) then
until low = high do put(R,low +:= 1)                  # find range
=","
}
return R
end

procedure list2string(L)        #: helper function to convert a list to a string
local s

every (s := "[ ") ||:= !L || " "
return s || "]"
end
```

{{out}}

```Input string      := -6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20
Expanded list   := [ -6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20 ]
```

## J

```require'strings'
thru=: <. + i.@(+*)@-~
num=: _&".
normaliz=: rplc&(',-';',_';'--';'-_')@,~&','
subranges=:<@(thru/)@(num;._2)@,&'-';._1
rngexp=: ;@subranges@normaliz
```

{{out|Example}}

```   rngexp '-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'
_6 _3 _2 _1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20
```

Notes:

thru: given two integers (left: start of range, right: end of range) return the corresponding sequence of adjacent integers

num: given the string representation of a number, returns the number

normaliz: given the task required string representing a sequence of ranges, create a fresh copy with fewer micro ambiguities: All subranges are preceded by a comma. Negative numbers use a different character ('_') than the continuous range character ('-').

subranges: given the result of normaliz, return a sequence of boxes (one box for each comma). Each box contains the subrange which is described after its comma.

As an aside, note also that thru/ is an identity function when applied to a single number. This is because (verb/) inserts the verb between each number (or each item in a list), and this is an identity function on a single number, regardless of any definition of the verb. Fortunately, this is consistent with the definition of thru (and is also consistent for any combining verb which has an identity element). Note that this is very similar to the self-justifying [[wp:Fold_(higher-order_function)|fold]] definition (specifically a right fold, because of J's structure), but fold can be considerably harder to reason about because it explicitly avoids the concept of identity for combining functions. You should maybe consider using a loop in contexts where this is an issue.

Also note that current versions of J no longer need `require'strings'` as those routines are included by default. (But let's leave this in place because current versions of J still have some catching up to do in some areas, such as lab support.)

## Java

```import java.util.*;

class RangeExpander implements Iterator<Integer>, Iterable<Integer> {

private static final Pattern TOKEN_PATTERN = Pattern.compile("([+-]?\\d+)-([+-]?\\d+)");

private final Iterator<String> tokensIterator;

private boolean inRange;
private int upperRangeEndpoint;
private int nextRangeValue;

public RangeExpander(String range) {
String[] tokens = range.split("\\s*,\\s*");
this.tokensIterator = Arrays.asList(tokens).iterator();
}

@Override
public boolean hasNext() {
return hasNextRangeValue() || this.tokensIterator.hasNext();
}

private boolean hasNextRangeValue() {
return this.inRange && this.nextRangeValue <= this.upperRangeEndpoint;
}

@Override
public Integer next() {
if (!hasNext()) {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}

if (hasNextRangeValue()) {
return this.nextRangeValue++;
}

String token = this.tokensIterator.next();

Matcher matcher = TOKEN_PATTERN.matcher(token);
if (matcher.find()) {
this.inRange = true;
this.upperRangeEndpoint = Integer.valueOf(matcher.group(2));
this.nextRangeValue = Integer.valueOf(matcher.group(1));
return this.nextRangeValue++;
}

this.inRange = false;
return Integer.valueOf(token);
}

@Override
public Iterator<Integer> iterator() {
return this;
}

}

class RangeExpanderTest {
public static void main(String[] args) {
RangeExpander re = new RangeExpander("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20");
for (int i : re) {
System.out.print(i + " ");
}
}
}
```

## JavaScript

===Imperative (Spidermonkey)===

```#!/usr/bin/env js

function main() {
print(rangeExpand('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'));
}

function rangeExpand(rangeExpr) {

function getFactors(term) {
var matches = term.match(/(-?[0-9]+)-(-?[0-9]+)/);
if (!matches) return {first:Number(term)};
return {first:Number(matches[1]), last:Number(matches[2])};
}

function expandTerm(term) {
var factors = getFactors(term);
if (factors.length < 2) return [factors.first];
var range = [];
for (var n = factors.first; n <= factors.last;  n++) {
range.push(n);
}
return range;
}

var result = [];
var terms = rangeExpr.split(/,/);
for (var t in terms) {
result = result.concat(expandTerm(terms[t]));
}

return result;
}

main();

```

{{out}} -6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

### =ES5=

```(function (strTest) {
'use strict';

// s -> [n]
function expansion(strExpr) {

// concat map yields flattened output list
return [].concat.apply([], strExpr.split(',')
.map(function (x) {
return x.split('-')
.reduce(function (a, s, i, l) {

// negative (after item 0) if preceded by an empty string
// (i.e. a hyphen-split artefact, otherwise ignored)
return s.length ? i ? a.concat(
parseInt(l[i - 1].length ? s :
'-' + s, 10)
) : [+s] : a;
}, []);

// two-number lists are interpreted as ranges
})
.map(function (r) {
return r.length > 1 ? range.apply(null, r) : r;
}));
}

// [m..n]
function range(m, n) {
return Array.apply(null, Array(n - m + 1))
.map(function (x, i) {
return m + i;
});
}

return expansion(strTest);

})('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20');
```

{{Out}}

```[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]
```

### =ES6=

```(strTest => {

// expansion :: String -> [Int]
let expansion = strExpr =>

// concat map yields flattened output list
[].concat.apply([], strExpr.split(',')
.map(x => x.split('-')
.reduce((a, s, i, l) =>

// negative (after item 0) if preceded by an empty string
// (i.e. a hyphen-split artefact, otherwise ignored)
s.length ? i ? a.concat(
parseInt(l[i - 1].length ? s :
'-' + s, 10)
) : [+s] : a, [])

// two-number lists are interpreted as ranges
)
.map(r => r.length > 1 ? range.apply(null, r) : r)),

// range :: Int -> Int -> Maybe Int -> [Int]
range = (m, n, step) => {
let d = (step || 1) * (n >= m ? 1 : -1);

return Array.from({
length: Math.floor((n - m) / d) + 1
}, (_, i) => m + (i * d));
};

return expansion(strTest);

})('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20');
```

{{Out}}

```[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]
```

## jq

{{works with|jq|with regex support}}

```def expand_range:
def number: "-?[0-9]+";
def expand: [range(.[0]; .[1] + 1)];

split(",")
| reduce .[] as \$r
( []; . +
(\$r | if test("^\(number)\$") then [tonumber]
else sub( "(?<x>\(number))-(?<y>\(number))"; "\(.x):\(.y)")
| split(":") | map(tonumber) | expand
end));
```

'''Example''':

```"-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20" | expand_range
```

{{out}}\$ jq -c -n -f Range_expansion.jq [-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]

## Jsish

{{trans|Javascript}}

```#!/usr/bin/env jsish
"use strict";

/* Range expansion, in Jsish */
function rangeExpand(rangeExpr) {

function getFactors(term) {
var matches = term.match(/(-?[0-9]+)-(-?[0-9]+)/);
if (!matches) return {first:Number(term)};
return {first:Number(matches[1]), last:Number(matches[2])};
}

function expandTerm(term) {
var factors = getFactors(term);
if (factors.length < 2) return [factors.first];
var range = [];
for (var n = factors.first; n <= factors.last;  n++) {
range.push(n);
}
return range;
}

var result = [];
var terms = rangeExpr.split(",");
for (var t in terms) {
result = result.concat(expandTerm(terms[t]));
}

return result;
}

if (Interp.conf('unitTest')) {
;    rangeExpand('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20');
}

/*
=!EXPECTSTART!=
rangeExpand('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20') ==> [ -6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20 ]
=!EXPECTEND!=
*/
```

{{out}}

```prompt\$ jsish --U rangeExpansion.jsi
rangeExpand('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20') ==> [ -6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20 ]
```

## Julia

```slurp(s) = readcsv(IOBuffer(s))

conv(s)= colon(map(x->parse(Int,x),match(r"^(-?\d+)-(-?\d+)\$", s).captures)...)

expand(s) = mapreduce(x -> isa(x,Number)? Int(x) : conv(x), vcat, slurp(s))
```

{{out}}

```julia> show(expand("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"))
[-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]
```

## K

```grp : {1_'(&x=*x)_ x:",",x}
pos : {:[3=l:#p:&"-"=x;0,p@1;2=l;p;0=*p;,0;0,p]}
conv: 0\${(x;1_ y)}/'{(pos x)_ x}'
expd: {,/@[x;&2=#:'x;{(*x)+!1+,/-':x}]}
rnge: {expd@conv grp x}
```

{{out|Example}}

```  rnge "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20
```

## Kotlin

```// version 1.0.6

fun expandRange(s: String): MutableList<Int> {
val list = mutableListOf<Int>()
val items = s.split(',')
var first: Int
var last:  Int
for (item in items) {
val count = item.count { it == '-' }
if (count == 0 || (count == 1 && item[0] == '-'))
else {
val items2 = item.split('-')
if (count == 1) {
first = items2[0].toInt()
last  = items2[1].toInt()
}
else if (count == 2) {
first = items2[1].toInt() * -1
last  = items2[2].toInt()
}
else {
first = items2[1].toInt() * -1
last  = items2[3].toInt() * -1
}
for (i in first..last) list.add(i)
}
}
return list
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
val s = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
println(expandRange(s))
}
```

{{out}}

```
[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]

```

## Lasso

```define range_expand(expression::string) => {
local(parts) = regexp(`^(-?\d+)-(-?\d+)\$`)

return (
with elm in #expression->split(`,`)
let isRange = #parts->setInput(#elm)&matches
select #isRange
? (integer(#parts->matchString(1)) to integer(#parts->matchString(2)))->asString
| integer(#elm)->asString
)->join(', ')
}

range_expand(`-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20`)
```

{{out}}

```-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20
```

## Liberty BASIC

```print ExpandRange\$( "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
end

function ExpandRange\$( compressed\$)
for i = 1 to ItemCount( compressed\$, ",")
item\$ = word\$( compressed\$, i, ",")
dash  = instr( item\$, "-", 2) 'dash that is not the first character, is a separator
if dash then
for k = val( left\$( item\$, dash - 1)) to val( mid\$( item\$, dash + 1))
ExpandRange\$ = ExpandRange\$ + str\$( k) + ","
next k
else
ExpandRange\$ = ExpandRange\$ + item\$ + ","
end if
next i
ExpandRange\$ = left\$( ExpandRange\$, len( ExpandRange\$) - 1)
end function

function ItemCount( list\$, separator\$)
while word\$(list\$, ItemCount + 1, separator\$) <> ""
ItemCount = ItemCount + 1
wend
end function
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

## Lingo

```-- Note: currently does not support extra white space in input string
on expandRange (str)
res = ""
_player.itemDelimiter = ","
cnt = str.item.count
repeat with i = 1 to cnt
part = str.item[i]
pos = offset("-", part.char[2..part.length])
if pos>0 then
a = integer(part.char[1..pos])
b = integer(part.char[pos+2..part.length])
repeat with j = a to b
put j&"," after res
end repeat
else
put part&"," after res
end if
end repeat
delete the last char of res
return res
end
```
```put expandRange("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
-- "-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20"
```

## LiveCode

```function range beginning ending stepping
local tRange, tBegin, tEnd, tstep
if stepping is empty or stepping is 0 then
put 1 into tstep
else
put abs(stepping) into tstep
end if

if ending is empty or isNumber(ending) is not true then
put 0 into tEnd
else
put ending into tEnd
end if

if beginning is empty or isNumber(beginning) is not true then
put 0 into tBegin
else
put beginning into tBegin
end if

repeat with r = tBegin to tEnd step tstep
put space & r after tRange
end repeat
return word 1 to -1 of tRange
end range

function expandRange rangeExpr
put rangeExpr into tRange
split tRange by comma
repeat with n = 1 to the number of elements of tRange
if matchText(tRange[n],"^(\-*\d+)\-(\-*\d+)",beginning, ending) then
put range(beginning, ending, 1) & space after z
else
put tRange[n] & space after z
end if
end repeat
return z
end expandRange
```

Test

```expandRange("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20
```

## Lua

```function range(i, j)
local t = {}
for n = i, j, i<j and 1 or -1 do
t[#t+1] = n
end
return t
end

function expand_ranges(rspec)
local ptn = "([-+]?%d+)%s?-%s?([-+]?%d+)"
local t = {}

for v in string.gmatch(rspec, '[^,]+') do
local s, e = v:match(ptn)

if s == nil then
t[#t+1] = tonumber(v)
else
for i, n in ipairs(range(tonumber(s), tonumber(e))) do
t[#t+1] = n
end
end
end
return t
end

local ranges = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
print(table.concat(expand_ranges(ranges), ', '))
```

Due to the way Lua's `tonumber` function works and the way the string pattern to parse ranges is written, whitespace is allowed around commas and the dash separating the range start and end (but not between the plus/minus sign and the number).

{{out}}

```
-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

## Maple

```
ExpandRanges := proc( s :: string )
uses  StringTools;
local DoOne := proc( input )
uses StringTools;
local lo, hi, pos;
if IsDigit( input ) or input[ 1 ] = "-"
and IsDigit( input[ 2 .. -1 ] ) then
parse( input )
else
pos := Search( "--", input );
if pos > 0 then
lo := input[ 1 .. pos - 1 ];
hi := input[ 1 + pos .. -1 ];
elif input[ 1 ] = "-" then
pos := FirstFromLeft( "-", input[ 2 .. -1 ] );
if pos = 0 then
lo := input;
hi := lo
else
lo := input[ 1 .. pos ];
hi := input[ 2 + pos .. -1 ];
end if;
else
pos := FirstFromLeft( "-", input );
if pos = 0 then
error "incorrect syntax"
end if;
lo := input[ 1 .. pos - 1 ];
hi := input[ 1 + pos .. -1 ];
end if;
lo := parse( lo );
hi := parse( hi );
seq( lo .. hi )
end if
end proc:
map( DoOne, map( Trim, Split( s, "," ) ) )
end proc:

```

Running this on the example input we get the following.

```
> rng := "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20":
> ExpandRanges( rng );
[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]

```

Here is an additional example which my first attempt got wrong.

```
> rng := "-6,-3-1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20":
> ExpandRanges( rng );
[-6, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]

```

## Mathematica

```rangeexpand[ rng_ ] := Module[ { step1 },
step1 = StringSplit[StringReplacePart[rng,"S",StringPosition[ rng,DigitCharacter~~"-"] /. {x_,y_} -> {y,y}],","];
Flatten@ToExpression/@Quiet@StringReplace[step1,x__~~"S"~~y__->"Range["<>x<>","<>y<>"]"] ]
```

{{out|Example}}

```rangeexpand["-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"]
{-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20}
```

```function L=range_expansion(S)
% Range expansion
if nargin < 1;
S='[]';
end

if ~all(isdigit(S) | (S=='-')  | (S==',') | isspace(S))
error 'invalid input';
end
ixr = find(isdigit(S(1:end-1)) & S(2:end) == '-')+1;
S(ixr)=':';
S=['[',S,']'];
L=eval(S);
```

Usage:

```
range_expansion('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20 ')
ans =
-6   -3   -2   -1    3    4    5    7    8    9   10   11   14   15   17   18   19   20

```

## MUMPS

```RANGEXP(X) ;Integer range expansion
NEW Y,I,J,X1,H SET Y=""
FOR I=1:1:\$LENGTH(X,",") DO
.S X1=\$PIECE(X,",",I) FOR  Q:\$EXTRACT(X1)'=" "  S X1=\$EXTRACT(X1,2,\$LENGTH(X1)) ;clean up leading spaces
.SET H=\$FIND(X1,"-")-1
.IF H=1 SET H=\$FIND(X1,"-",(H+1))-1 ;If the first value is negative ignore that "-"
.IF H<0 SET Y=\$SELECT(\$LENGTH(Y)=0:Y_X1,1:Y_","_X1)
.IF '(H<0) FOR J=+\$EXTRACT(X1,1,(H-1)):1:+\$EXTRACT(X1,(H+1),\$LENGTH(X1)) SET Y=\$SELECT(\$LENGTH(Y)=0:J,1:Y_","_J)
KILL I,J,X1,H
QUIT Y
```

{{out|Example}}

```USER>SET U="-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"

USER>WRITE \$\$RANGEXP^ROSETTA(U)
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

## NetRexx

Translation of: [[Range_expansion#Version_2_somewhat_simplified_.21.3F.21|Rexx Version 2]]

```/*NetRexx program to expand a range of integers into a list. *************
* 09.08.2012 Walter Pachl derived from my Rexx version
* Changes: translate(old,' ',',') -> old.translate(' ',',')
*          dashpos=pos('-',x,2)   -> dashpos=x.pos('-',2)
*          Do                     -> Loop
*          Parse Var a x a        -> Parse a x a
*          Parse Var x ...        -> Parse x ...
**********************************************************************/

parse arg old
if old = '' then
old='-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20' /*original list of nums/ranges */

Say 'old='old                     /*show old list of nums/ranges.  */
a=old.translate(' ',',')          /*translate commas to blanks     */
new=''                            /*new list of numbers (so far).  */

comma=''
Loop While a<>''                  /* as long as there is input     */
Parse a x a                     /* get one element               */
dashpos=x.pos('-',2)            /* find position of dash, if any */
If dashpos>0 Then Do            /* element is low-high           */
Parse x low =(dashpos) +1 high /* split the element        */
Loop j=low To high            /* output all numbers in range   */
new=new||comma||j           /* with separating commas        */
comma=','                   /* from now on use comma         */
End
End
Else Do                         /* element is a number           */
new=new||comma||x             /* append (with comma)           */
comma=','                     /* from now on use comma         */
End
End
Say 'new='new                     /*show the expanded list         */

```

{{out}}

```
old=-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20
new=-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## Nim

```import parseutils, re, strutils

proc expandRange(input: string): string =
var output: seq[string] = @[]
for range in input.split(','):
var sep = range.find('-', 1)
if sep > 0: # parse range
var first = -1
if range.substr(0, sep-1).parseInt(first) == 0:
break
var last = -1
if range.substr(sep+1).parseInt(last) == 0:
break
for i in first..last:
else: # parse single number
var n = -1
if range.parseInt(n) > 0:
else:
break
return output.join(",")

echo("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20".expandRange)
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

```
MODULE LIVector;
IMPORT SYSTEM;
TYPE
LIPool = POINTER TO ARRAY OF LONGINT;
LIVector*= POINTER TO LIVectorDesc;
LIVectorDesc = RECORD
cap-: INTEGER;
len-: INTEGER;
LIPool: LIPool;
END;

PROCEDURE (v: LIVector) Init*(cap: INTEGER);
BEGIN
v.cap := cap;
v.len := 0;
NEW(v.LIPool,cap);
END Init;

PROCEDURE (v: LIVector) Add*(x: LONGINT);
VAR
newLIPool: LIPool;
BEGIN
IF v.len = LEN(v.LIPool^) THEN
(* run out of space *)
v.cap := v.cap + (v.cap DIV 2);
NEW(newLIPool,v.cap);
v.LIPool := newLIPool
END;
v.LIPool[v.len] := x;
INC(v.len)

PROCEDURE (v: LIVector) At*(idx: INTEGER): LONGINT;
BEGIN
RETURN v.LIPool[idx];
END At;
END LIVector.

MODULE LIRange;
IMPORT Out, LIV := LIVector;

TYPE
Range* = POINTER TO RangeDesc;
RangeDesc = RECORD
l,r: POINTER TO ARRAY 1 OF LONGINT;
END;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) Init*();
BEGIN
r.l := NIL;
r.r := NIL;
END Init;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) IsEmpty*(): BOOLEAN;
BEGIN
RETURN (r.l = NIL) & (r.l = NIL);
END IsEmpty;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) SetLeft*(v: LONGINT);
BEGIN
IF r.l = NIL THEN NEW(r.l) END;
r.l[0] := v;
END SetLeft;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) SetRight*(v : LONGINT);
BEGIN
IF r.r = NIL THEN NEW(r.r) END;
r.r[0] := v;
END SetRight;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) LeftPart*(): BOOLEAN;
BEGIN
RETURN r.l # NIL;
END LeftPart;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) GetLeft(): LONGINT;
BEGIN
RETURN r.l[0];
END	GetLeft;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) RightPart*(): BOOLEAN;
BEGIN
RETURN r.l # NIL;
END RightPart;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) GetRight*(): LONGINT;
BEGIN
RETURN r.r[0];
END	GetRight;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) Show*();
BEGIN
Out.Char('(');
IF r.l # NIL THEN Out.LongInt(r.l[0],10) END;
Out.String(" - ");
IF r.r # NIL THEN Out.LongInt(r.r[0],10); END;
Out.Char(')');Out.Ln
END Show;

PROCEDURE (r: Range) Expand*(VAR liv: LIV.LIVector);
VAR
from, to : LONGINT;
BEGIN
IF r.l # NIL THEN from := r.l[0] ELSE from := 0 END;
IF r.r # NIL THEN to := r.r[0] ELSE to := from END;
WHILE (from <= to) DO
END
END Expand;
END LIRange.

MODULE Splitter;
TYPE
Splitter* = POINTER TO SplitterDesc;
SplitterDesc = RECORD
from: INTEGER;
c: CHAR;
s: POINTER TO ARRAY OF CHAR;
END;

PROCEDURE (s: Splitter) Init*;
BEGIN
s.c := ',';
s.from := 0;
s.s := NIL;
END Init;

PROCEDURE (s: Splitter) On*(str: ARRAY OF CHAR);
BEGIN
s.from := 0;
NEW(s.s,LEN(str));
COPY(str,s.s^)
END On;

PROCEDURE (s: Splitter) OnWithChar*(str: ARRAY OF CHAR;c: CHAR);
BEGIN
s.from := 0;
s.c := c;
NEW(s.s,LEN(str));
COPY(str,s.s^)
END OnWithChar;

PROCEDURE (s: Splitter) Next*(VAR str: ARRAY OF CHAR);
VAR
k : INTEGER;
BEGIN
k := 0;
IF (s.from < LEN(s.s^) - 1) & (s.s[s.from] = 0X) THEN str[0] := 0X END;
WHILE (k < LEN(str) - 1) & (s.from < LEN(s.s^) - 1) & (s.s[s.from] # s.c) DO
str[k] := s.s[s.from];
INC(k);INC(s.from)
END;
IF k < LEN(str) - 1 THEN str[k] := 0X ELSE str[LEN(str) - 1] := 0X END;
WHILE (s.from < LEN(s.s^) - 1) & (s.s[s.from] # s.c) DO INC(s.from) END;
INC(s.from)
END Next;
END Splitter.

MODULE ExpandRange;
IMPORT Out, LIV := LIVector, LIR := LIRange, S := Splitter;

PROCEDURE GetNumberFrom(s: ARRAY OF CHAR; VAR from: INTEGER; VAR done: BOOLEAN): LONGINT;
VAR
d,i: INTEGER;
num,sign: LONGINT;
BEGIN
i := from; num := 0;sign := 1;
CASE s[i] OF
'-': sign := -1;INC(i)
|'+': INC(i);
ELSE
END;
WHILE (i < LEN(s) - 1) & (s[i] >= '0') & (s[i] <= '9') DO
d := ORD(s[i]) - ORD('0');
num := d + num * 10;
INC(i);
END;
IF i = from THEN done := FALSE ELSE done := TRUE; from := i END;
RETURN sign * num
END GetNumberFrom;

PROCEDURE GetRange(s: ARRAY OF CHAR): LIR.Range;
VAR
r: LIR.Range;
i: INTEGER;
num: LONGINT;
done: BOOLEAN;
BEGIN
i := 0;NEW(r);r.Init();
WHILE (i < LEN(s) - 1) & (s[i] = 20X) DO INC(i) END;
(* Left value *)
done := FALSE;
num := GetNumberFrom(s,i,done);
IF ~done THEN RETURN r END;
r.SetLeft(num);

WHILE (i < LEN(s) - 1) & (s[i] = 20X) DO INC(i) END;
CASE s[i] OF
'-' : INC(i);
| 0X : RETURN r;
ELSE
END;
WHILE (i < LEN(s) - 1) & (s[i] = 20X) DO INC(i) END;

(* Right Value *)
done := FALSE;
num := GetNumberFrom(s,i,done);
IF ~done THEN RETURN r END;
r.SetRight(num);
RETURN r;
END GetRange;

VAR
i: INTEGER;
r: LIR.Range;
sp: S.Splitter;
p : ARRAY 128 OF CHAR;
liv: LIV.LIVector;
BEGIN
NEW(sp);sp.Init();
NEW(liv);liv.Init(128);

sp.On("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20");
sp.Next(p);
WHILE (p[0] # 0X) DO
r := GetRange(p);
r.Expand(liv);
sp.Next(p);
END;
FOR i := 0 TO liv.len - 2 DO
Out.LongInt(liv.At(i),3);Out.Char(',');
END;
Out.LongInt(liv.At(liv.len - 1),3);Out.Ln;
END ExpandRange.

```

{{out}}

```
-6, -3, -2, -1,  3,  4,  5,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

## OCaml

```#load "str.cma"

let range a b =
if b < a then invalid_arg "range";
let rec aux i acc =
if i = b then List.rev (i::acc)
else aux (succ i) (i::acc)
in
aux a []

let parse_piece s =
try Scanf.sscanf s "%d-%d" (fun a b -> range a b)
with _ -> [int_of_string s]

let range_expand rng =
let ps = Str.split (Str.regexp_string ",") rng in
List.flatten (List.map parse_piece ps)

let () =
let rng = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20" in
let exp = range_expand rng in
List.iter (Printf.printf " %d") exp;
print_newline ()
```

## Oforth

```: addRange( s res -- )
| i n |
s asInteger dup ifNotNull: [ res add return ] drop
s indexOfFrom('-', 2) ->i
s left( i 1- ) asInteger  s right( s size i - ) asInteger
for: n [ n res add ]
;

: rangeExpand ( s -- [ n ] )
ArrayBuffer new  s wordsWith( ',' ) apply( #[ over addRange ] ) ;
```

## ooRexx

```
list = '-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'
expanded = expandRanges(list)

say "Original list: ["list"]"
say "Expanded list: ["expanded~tostring("l", ",")"]"

-- expand a string expression a range of numbers into a list
-- of values for the range.  This returns an array
::routine expandRanges
use strict arg list
values = list~makearray(',')
-- build this up using an array first.  Make this at least the
-- size of the original value set.
expanded = .array~new(values~items)

-- now process each element in the range
loop element over values
-- if this is a valid number, it's not a range, so add it directly
if element~datatype('whole') then expanded~append(element)
else do
-- search for the divider, starting from the second position
-- to allow for the starting value to be a minus sign.
split = element~pos('-', 2)
parse var element start =(split) +1 finish
loop i = start to finish
expanded~append(i)
end
end
end
return expanded

```

{{out}}

```
Original list: [-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20]
Expanded list: [-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]

```

## Oz

```declare
fun {Expand RangeDesc}
{Flatten
{Map {ParseDesc RangeDesc}
ExpandRange}}
end

fun {ParseDesc Txt}
{Map {String.tokens Txt &,} ParseRange}
end

fun {ParseRange R}
if {Member &- R.2} then
First Second
in
{String.token R.2 &- ?First ?Second}
{String.toInt R.1|First}#{String.toInt Second}
else
Singleton = {String.toInt R}
in
Singleton#Singleton
end
end

fun {ExpandRange From#To}
{List.number From To 1}
end
in
{System.showInfo
{Value.toVirtualString {Expand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"} 100 100}}
```

{{out|Sample output}}

```[~6 ~3 ~2 ~1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20]
```

## Perl

One-liner:

```sub rangex {
map { /^(.*\d)-(.+)\$/ ? \$1..\$2 : \$_ } split /,/, shift
}

# Test and display
print join(',', rangex('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20')), "\n";
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

Alternative:

```sub rangex {
(my \$range = shift) =~ s/(?<=\d)-/../g;
eval \$range;
}
```

## Perl 6

{{works with|Rakudo|2016.07}}

```sub range-expand (Str \$range-description) {
my token number { '-'? \d+ }
my token range  { (<&number>) '-' (<&number>) }

\$range-description
.split(',')
.map({ .match(&range) ?? \$0..\$1 !! +\$_ })
.flat
}

say range-expand('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20').join(', ');
```

{{out}}

```-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20
```

Alternatively, using a grammar:

```grammar RangeList {
token TOP    { <term>* % ','    { make \$<term>.map(*.made)       } }
token term   { [<range>|<num>]  { make (\$<num> // \$<range>).made } }
token range  { <num> '-' <num>  { make +\$<num>[0] .. +\$<num>[1]  } }
token num    { '-'? \d+         { make +\$/                       } }
}

```

{{out}}

```-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20
```

## Phix

```function range_expansion(string range)
sequence s = split(range,','),
res = {}
for i=1 to length(s) do
string si = s[i]
integer k = find('-',si,2)
if k=0 then
res = append(res,to_number(si))
else
integer startrange = to_number(si[1..k-1])
integer endofrange = to_number(si[k+1..\$])
for l=startrange to endofrange do
res = append(res,l)
end for
end if
end for
return res
end function

?range_expansion("-6,-3-1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
?range_expansion("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
```

{{out}}

```
{-6,-3,-2,-1,0,1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20}
{-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20}

```

## PHP

{{trans|Python}}

```function rangex(\$str) {
\$lst = array();
foreach (explode(',', \$str) as \$e) {
if (strpos(\$e, '-', 1) !== FALSE) {
list(\$a, \$b) = explode('-', substr(\$e, 1), 2);
\$lst = array_merge(\$lst, range(\$e[0] . \$a, \$b));
} else {
\$lst[] = (int) \$e;
}
}
return \$lst;
}
```

## PicoLisp

```(de rangeexpand (Str)
(make
(for S (split (chop Str) ",")
(if (index "-" (cdr S))
(chain
(range
(format (head @ S))
(format (tail (- -1 @) S)) ) )
(link (format S)) ) ) ) )
```

{{out}}

```: (rangeexpand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
-> (-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20)
```

## PL/I

```range_expansion:
procedure options (main);

get_number:
procedure (Number, c, eof);
declare number fixed binary (31), c character (1), eof bit (1) aligned;
declare neg fixed binary (1);

number = 0; eof = false;
do until (c ^= ' ');
get edit (c) (a(1));
end;
if c = '-' then do; get edit (c) (a(1)); neg = -1; end; else neg = 1;
do forever;
select (c);
when ('0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9')
number = number*10 + c;
when (',', '-') do; number = neg*number; return; end;
otherwise signal error;
end;
on endfile (sysin) go to exit;
get edit (c) (a(1));
end;
exit:
number = neg*number;
eof = true;
end get_Number;

declare c character, (i, range_start, range_end) fixed binary (31);
declare eof bit (1) aligned;
declare true bit (1) value ('1'b), false bit (1) value ('0'b);
declare delimiter character (1) initial (' ');
declare out file output;

open file (out) output title ('/out, type(text),recsize(80)');
do while (^eof);
call get_number(range_start, c, eof);
if c = '-' then /* we have a range */
do;
call get_number (range_end, c, eof);
do i = range_start to range_end;
put file (out) edit (delimiter, i) (a, f(3));
end;
end;
else
do;
put file (out) edit (delimiter, range_start) (a, f(3));
end;
delimiter = ',';
end;
end range_expansion;
```

{{out}}

```
-6, -3, -2, -1,  3,  4,  5,  7,  8,  9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

## PowerShell

```
function range-expansion(\$array) {
function expansion(\$arr) {
if(\$arr) {
\$arr = \$arr.Split(',')
\$arr | foreach{
\$a = \$_
\$b, \$c, \$d, \$e = \$a.Split('-')
switch(\$a) {
\$b {return \$a}
"-\$c" {return \$a}
"\$b-\$c" {return "\$(([Int]\$b)..([Int]\$c))"}
"-\$c-\$d" {return "\$(([Int]\$("-\$c"))..([Int]\$d))"}
"-\$c--\$e" {return "\$(([Int]\$("-\$c"))..([Int]\$("-\$e")))"}
}
}
} else {""}
}
\$OFS = ", "
"\$(expansion \$array)"
\$OFS = " "
}
range-expansion "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"

```

Output:

```
-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

===Alternate Half-Assed Regex Version=== Ten times faster (only minimally tested).

```
function Expand-Range
{
[CmdletBinding()]
[OutputType([int])]
Param
(
[Parameter(Mandatory=\$true,
Position=0)]
[ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
[ValidatePattern('^[0-9,-]*\$')]
[string]
\$Range
)

try
{
if (\$Range -match '-,')       # I'm not good enough to weed this case out with Regex
{
throw "Input string was not in a correct format."
}

[int[]]\$output = \$Range -split ',' | ForEach-Object {

[int[]]\$array = \$_ -split '(?<=\d)-'

if (\$array.Count -gt 1)   # \$array contains one or two elements
{
\$array[0]..\$array[1]  # two elements = start and end of range
}
else
{
\$array                # one element = an integer
}
}
}
catch
{
throw "Input string was not in a correct format."
}

\$output
}

```
```
(Expand-Range "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20") -join ", "

```

{{Out}}

```
-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20

```

## Prolog

{{Works with|SWI Prolog}} {{libheader|clpfd}} The code uses three predicates '''extract_Range/2''', '''study_Range/2''' and '''pack_Range/2'''.
Every predicate works in both directions arg1 towards arg2 and arg2 towards arg1, so that '''Range expansion''' and '''Range extraction''' work with the same predicates but in reverse order.

```range_expand :-
L = '-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20',
writeln(L),
atom_chars(L, LA),
extract_Range(LA, R),
maplist(study_Range, R, LR),
pack_Range(LX, LR),
writeln(LX).

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
% extract_Range(?In, ?Out)
% In  : '-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'
% Out : [-6], [-3--1], [3-5],[7-11], [14],[15], [17-20]
%
extract_Range([], []).

extract_Range(X , [Range | Y1]) :-
get_Range(X, U-U, Range, X1),
extract_Range(X1, Y1).

get_Range([], Range-[], Range, []).
get_Range([','|B], Range-[], Range, B) :- !.

get_Range([A | B], EC, Range, R) :-
append_dl(EC, [A | U]-U, NEC),
get_Range(B, NEC, Range, R).

append_dl(X-Y, Y-Z, X-Z).

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
% study Range(?In, ?Out)
% In  : [-6]
% Out : [-6,-6]
%
% In  : [-3--1]
% Out : [-3, -1]
%
study_Range(Range1, [Deb, Deb]) :-
catch(number_chars(Deb, Range1), Deb, false).

study_Range(Range1, [Deb, Fin]) :-
append(A, ['-'|B], Range1),
A \= [],
number_chars(Deb, A),
number_chars(Fin, B).

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
:- use_module(library(clpfd)).
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
% Pack Range(?In, ?Out)
% In  : -6,
% Out : [-6]
%
% In  : -3, -2,-1
% Out : [-3,-1]
%
pack_Range([],[]).

pack_Range([X|Rest],[[X | V]|Packed]):-
run(X,Rest, [X|V], RRest),
pack_Range(RRest,Packed).

run(Fin,[Other|RRest], [Deb, Fin],[Other|RRest]):-
Fin #\= Deb,
Fin #\= Deb + 1,
Other #\= Fin+1.

run(Fin,[],[_Var, Fin],[]).

run(Var,[Var1|LRest],[Deb, Fin], RRest):-
Fin #\= Deb,
Fin #\= Deb + 1,
Var1 #= Var + 1,
run(Var1,LRest,[Deb, Fin], RRest).

run(Val,[Other|RRest], [Val, Val],[Other|RRest]).
```

{{out}}

``` ?- range_expand.
-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20
[-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]
true
```

## PureBasic

```Procedure rangeexpand(txt.s, List outputList())
Protected rangesCount = CountString(txt, ",") + 1
Protected subTxt.s, r, rangeMarker, rangeStart, rangeFinish, rangeIncrement, i

LastElement(outputList())
For r = 1 To rangesCount
subTxt = StringField(txt, r, ",")
rangeMarker = FindString(subTxt, "-", 2)
If rangeMarker
rangeStart = Val(Mid(subTxt, 1, rangeMarker - 1))
rangeFinish = Val(Mid(subTxt, rangeMarker + 1))

If rangeStart > rangeFinish
rangeIncrement = -1
Else
rangeIncrement = 1
EndIf

i = rangeStart - rangeIncrement
Repeat
i + rangeIncrement
AddElement(outputList()): outputList() = i
Until i = rangeFinish
Else
AddElement(outputList()): outputList() = Val(subTxt)
EndIf
Next
EndProcedure

Procedure outputListValues(List values())
Print("[ ")
ForEach values()
Print(Str(values()) + " ")
Next
PrintN("]")
EndProcedure

If OpenConsole()
NewList values()
rangeexpand("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20", values())
outputListValues(values())

Print(#CRLF\$ + #CRLF\$ + "Press ENTER to exit")
Input()
CloseConsole()
EndIf
```

{{out}}

```[ -6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20 ]
```

## Python

### Procedural

```def rangeexpand(txt):
lst = []
for r in txt.split(','):
if '-' in r[1:]:
r0, r1 = r[1:].split('-', 1)
lst += range(int(r[0] + r0), int(r1) + 1)
else:
lst.append(int(r))
return lst

print(rangeexpand('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'))
```

another variant, using [[regular expressions]] to parse the ranges,

```import re

def rangeexpand(txt):
lst = []
for rng in txt.split(','):
start,end = re.match('^(-?\d+)(?:-(-?\d+))?\$', rng).groups()
if end:
lst.extend(xrange(int(start),int(end)+1))
else:
lst.append(int(start))
return lst
```

### Functional

As a fold/catamorphism: {{Works with|Python|3.7}}

```'''Range expansion'''

from functools import (reduce)

# rangeExpansion :: String -> [Int]
def rangeExpansion(s):
'''List of integers expanded from a
comma-delimited string of individual
numbers and hyphenated ranges.
'''
def go(a, x):
tpl = breakOn('-')(x[1:])
r = tpl[1]
return a + (
[int(x)] if not r
else enumFromTo(int(x[0] + tpl[0]))(
int(r[1:])
)
)
return reduce(go, s.split(','), [])

# TEST ----------------------------------------------------
def main():
'''Expansion test'''

print(
fTable(__doc__ + ':')(
lambda x: "\n'" + str(x) + "'"
)(lambda x: '\n\n\t' + showList(x))(
rangeExpansion
)([
'-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'
])
)

# GENERIC FUNCTIONS ---------------------------------------

# breakOn :: String -> String -> (String, String)
def breakOn(needle):
'''A tuple of:
1. the prefix of haystack before needle,
2. the remainder of haystack, starting
with needle.
'''
def go(haystack):
xs = haystack.split(needle)
return (xs[0], haystack[len(xs[0]):]) if (
1 < len(xs)
) else (haystack, '')
return lambda haystack: go(haystack) if (
needle
) else None

# enumFromTo :: (Int, Int) -> [Int]
def enumFromTo(m):
'''Integer enumeration from m to n.'''
return lambda n: list(range(m, 1 + n))

# fTable :: String -> (a -> String) ->
#                     (b -> String) ->
#        (a -> b) -> [a] -> String
def fTable(s):
'''Heading -> x display function -> fx display function ->
f -> value list -> tabular string.'''
def go(xShow, fxShow, f, xs):
w = max(map(lambda x: len(xShow(x)), xs))
return s + '\n' + '\n'.join([
xShow(x).rjust(w, ' ') + (
' -> '
) + fxShow(f(x)) for x in xs
])
return lambda xShow: lambda fxShow: (
lambda f: lambda xs: go(
xShow, fxShow, f, xs
)
)

# showList :: [a] -> String
def showList(xs):
'''Stringification of a list.'''
return '[' + ','.join(str(x) for x in xs) + ']'

# MAIN ---
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()
```

{{Out}}

```Range expansion:

'-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20' ->

[-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20]
```

## R

```
rangeExpand <- function(text) {
lst <- gsub("(\\d)-", "\\1:", unlist(strsplit(text, ",")))
unlist(sapply(lst, function (x) eval(parse(text=x))), use.names=FALSE)
}

rangeExpand("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
[1] -6 -3 -2 -1  3  4  5  7  8  9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20

```

## Racket

```
#lang racket

(define (range-expand s)
(append*
(for/list ([r (regexp-split "," s)])
(match (regexp-match* "(-?[0-9]+)-(-?[0-9]+)" r
#:match-select cdr)
[(list (list f t))
(range (string->number f) (+ (string->number t) 1))]
[(list)
(list (string->number r))]))))

(range-expand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")

```

{{out}}

```
'(-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20)

```

Here is an alternative version without regular expressions. It uses the builtin function read to read the numbers. Since 3--4 is normally parsed as a symbol rather than 3 followed by - followed by -4, a readtable is installed that makes - a delimiter.

```
#lang racket

(define on-minus
(case-lambda
[(ch ip) (on-minus ch ip #f #f #f #f)]
[(ch ip src line col pos)
(if (char-numeric? (peek-char ip))
(datum->syntax #f '-))]))

(define minus-delimits

(define (range-expand s)
(append*
(for/list ([f (in-port read s)])
(match (peek-char s)
(list f)]
(define t (read s))
(range f (+ t 1))])))))

(range-expand (open-input-string "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"))

```

Note that one can use the full number syntax in this alternative version:

```
> (range-expand (open-input-string "1-6/3,3e1-32"))
'(1 2 30.0 31.0 32.0)

```

## Raven

Based loosely on Ruby

```define get_num use \$lst
# "-22" split by "-" is [ "", "22" ]  so check if
# first list item is "" -> a negative number
\$lst 0 get "" = if
# negative number
#
# convert str to integer and multiply by -1
-1 \$lst 1 get 0 prefer *
\$lst shift \$lst shift drop drop
else
# positive number
\$lst 0 get 0 prefer
\$lst shift drop

define range_expand use \$rng
[ ] as \$res
\$rng "," split each as \$r
\$r m/^(-?\d+)-(-?\d+)\$/ TRUE = if
\$r s/-/g as \$parts
\$parts get_num as \$from
\$parts get_num as \$to
# int list to str list, then joined by ","
group
\$from \$to 1 range each "" prefer
list "," join \$res push
# range doesn't include the \$to, so add to end of generated range
\$to "%d" \$res push
else
\$r \$res push
\$res "," join print
"\n" print

'-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20' range_expand
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

## REXX

### version 1

Extra imbedded blanks were added to the old list (which are ignored) to make the ''over/under'' comparison easier (in the output).

```/*REXX program expands an  ordered list  of  integers  into  an expanded list.          */
old= '-6,-3--1,   3-5,  7-11,       14,15,17-20';       a=translate(old,,',')
new=                                             /*translate [↑]  commas (,) ───► blanks*/
do until a=='';   parse var a X a          /*obtain the next integer ──or── range.*/
p=pos('-', X, 2)                           /*find the location of a dash (maybe). */
if p==0 then  new=new   X                  /*append integer   X   to the new list.*/
else  do j=left(X,p-1)  to substr(X,p+1);     new=new j
end   /*j*/                  /*append a single [↑] integer at a time*/
end                 /*until*/
/*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. */
new=translate( strip(new),  ',',  " ")           /*remove the first blank,  add commas. */
say 'old list: '   old                           /*show the  old list of numbers/ranges.*/
say 'new list: '   new                           /*  "   "   new   "   " numbers.       */
```

'''output'''

```
old list:  -6,-3--1,   3-5,  7-11,       14,15,17-20
new list:  -6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

===Version 2 somewhat simplified !?!===

```/*REXX program to expand a range of integers into a list. *************
* 09.08.2012 Walter Pachl
**********************************************************************/

parse arg old
if old = '' then -
old='-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20' /*original list of nums/ranges */

Say 'old='old                     /*show old list of nums/ranges.  */
a=translate(old,,',')             /*translate commas to blanks     */
new=''                            /*new list of numbers (so far).  */

comma=''
Do While a<>''                    /* as long as there is input     */
Parse var a x a                 /* get one element               */
dashpos=pos('-',x,2)            /* find position of dash, if any */
If dashpos>0 Then Do            /* element is low-high           */
Parse Var x low =(dashpos) +1 high /* split the element        */
Do j=low To high              /* output all numbers in range   */
new=new||comma||j           /* with separating commas        */
comma=','                   /* from now on use comma         */
End
End
Else Do                         /* element is a number           */
new=new||comma||x             /* append (with comma)           */
comma=','                     /* from now on use comma         */
End
End
Say 'new='new                     /*show the expanded list         */
```

{{out}}

```
old=-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20
new=-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## Ring

```
# Project : Range expansion

int = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
int = str2list(substr(int, ",", nl))
newint = []
for n=1 to len(int)
nrint = substr(int[n], "-")
nrint2 = substr(int[n], "--")
if nrint2 > 0
temp1 = left(int[n], nrint2 -1)
temp2 = right(int[n], len(int[n]) - nrint2)
else
if len(int[n]) <= 2
else
if nrint > 0 and nrint2 = 0
temp1 = left(int[n], nrint - 1)
temp2 = right(int[n], len(int[n]) - nrint)
ok
ok
ok
next
showarray(newint)

func showarray(vect)
see "["
svect = ""
for n = 1 to len(vect)
if newint[n][2] != ""
for nr = newint[n][1] to newint[n][2]
svect = svect +"" + nr + ", "
next
else
svect = svect +"" + newint[n][1] + ", "
ok
next
svect = left(svect, len(svect) - 2)
see svect
see "]" + nl

```

Output:

```
[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]

```

## Ruby

```def range_expand(rng)
rng.split(',').flat_map do |part|
if part =~ /^(-?\d+)-(-?\d+)\$/
(\$1.to_i .. \$2.to_i).to_a
else
Integer(part)
end
end
end

p range_expand('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20')
```

{{out}}

```[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]
```

## Run BASIC

```PRINT rangeExpand\$("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
end

function rangeExpand\$(range\$)
[loop]
i	= INSTR(range\$, "-", i+1)
IF i THEN
j = i
WHILE MID\$(range\$,j-1,1) <> "," AND j <> 1
j = j - 1
wend
IF i > j then
IF MID\$(range\$,j,i-j) <> str\$(i-j)+" " THEN
t\$ = ""
FOR k = VAL(MID\$(range\$,j)) TO VAL(MID\$(range\$,i+1))-1
t\$ = t\$ + str\$(k) + ","
NEXT k
range\$ = LEFT\$(range\$,j-1) + t\$ + MID\$(range\$,i+1)
i = j + LEN(t\$) + 2
end if
end if
end if
if i <> 0 then goto [loop]
rangeExpand\$ = range\$
end function
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

## Rust

Rust doesn't have regex in standard library yet.

```use std::str::FromStr;

// Precondition: range doesn't contain multibyte UTF-8 characters
fn range_expand(range : &str) -> Vec<i32> {
range.split(',').flat_map(|item| {
match i32::from_str(item) {
Ok(n) => n..n+1,
_ => {
let dashpos=
match item.rfind("--") {
Some(p) => p,
None => item.rfind('-').unwrap(),
};
let rstart=i32::from_str(
unsafe{ item.slice_unchecked(0,dashpos)} ).unwrap();
let rend=i32::from_str(
unsafe{ item.slice_unchecked(dashpos+1,item.len()) } ).unwrap();
rstart..rend+1
},
}
}).collect()
}

fn main() {
println!("{:?}", range_expand("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"));
}

```

{{out}}

```[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]

```

=={{header|S-lang}}== variable r_expres = "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20", s, r_expan = {}, dpos, i;

foreach s (strchop(r_expres, ',', 0)) { % S-Lang built-in RE's are fairly limited, and have a quirk: % grouping is done with \( and \), not ( and ) % [PCRE and Oniguruma RE's are available via standard libraries] if (string_match(s, "-?[0-9]+\(-\)-?[0-9]+", 1)) {

```(dpos, ) = string_match_nth(1);

% Create/loop-over a "range array": from num before - to num after it:
foreach i ( [integer(substr(s, 1, dpos)) : integer(substr(s, dpos+2, -1))] )
list_append(r_expan, string(i));
```

} else list_append(r_expan, s); } print(strjoin(list_to_array(r_expan), ", "));

```

## Scala

```Scala
def rangex(str: String): Seq[Int] =
str split "," flatMap { (s) =>
val r = """(-?\d+)(?:-(-?\d+))?""".r
val r(a,b) = s
if (b == null) Seq(a.toInt) else a.toInt to b.toInt
}
```

{{out}}

```> println(rangex("-6,-3-1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"))
ArraySeq(-6, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20)
> println(rangex("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"))
ArraySeq(-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20)
```

## Scheme

```(define split
(lambda (str char skip count)
(let ((len (string-length str)))
(let loop ((index skip)
(last-index 0)
(result '()))
(if (= index len)
(reverse (cons (substring str last-index) result))
(if (eq? char (string-ref str index))
(loop (if (= count (+ 2 (length result)))
len
(+ index 1))
(+ index 1)
(cons char (cons (substring str last-index index)
result)))
(loop (+ index 1)
last-index
result)))))))

(define range-expand
(lambda (str)
(for-each
(lambda (token)
(if (char? token)
(display token)
(let ((range (split token #\- 1 2)))
(if (null? (cdr range))
(display (car range))
(do ((count (string->number (list-ref range 0)) (+ 1 count))
(high (string->number (list-ref range 2))))
((= count high) (display high))
(display count)
(display ","))))))
(split str #\, 0 0))
(newline)))
```

{{out}}

```
(range-expand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## Seed7

The library [http://seed7.sourceforge.net/libraries/scanstri.htm scanstri.s7i] defines the function [http://seed7.sourceforge.net/libraries/scanstri.htm#getInteger%28inout_string%29 getInteger] to extract substrings with integer literals (optional sign followed by a sequence of digits) from a string. The integer literals are converted to the type [http://seed7.sourceforge.net/libraries/integer.htm integer] with the [http://seed7.sourceforge.net/libraries/integer.htm#%28attr_integer%29parse%28in_string%29 parse] operator.

```\$ include "seed7_05.s7i";
include "scanstri.s7i";

const func array integer: rangeExpansion (in var string: rangeStri) is func
result
var array integer: numbers is 0 times 0;
local
var integer: number is 0;
begin
while rangeStri <> "" do
number := integer parse getInteger(rangeStri);
numbers &:= number;
if startsWith(rangeStri, "-") then
rangeStri := rangeStri[2 ..];
for number range succ(number) to integer parse getInteger(rangeStri) do
numbers &:= number;
end for;
end if;
if startsWith(rangeStri, ",") then
rangeStri := rangeStri[2 ..];
elsif rangeStri <> "" then
raise RANGE_ERROR;
end if;
end while;
end func;

const proc: main is func
local
var integer: number is 0;
begin
for number range rangeExpansion("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20") do
write(number <& " ");
end for;
writeln;
end func;
```

{{out}}

```
-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20

```

## Sidef

```func rangex(str) {
str.split(',').map { |r|
var m = r.match(/^
(?(DEFINE) (?<int>[+-]?[0-9]+) )
(?<from>(?&int))-(?<to>(?&int))
\$/x)
m ? do {var c = m.ncap; (Num(c{:from}) .. Num(c{:to}))...}
: Num(r)
}
}

say rangex('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20').join(',')
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

## SNOBOL4

```*       # Return range n1 .. n2
define('range(n1,n2)') :(range_end)
range   range = range n1 ','; n1 = lt(n1,n2) n1 + 1 :s(range)
range rtab(1) . range :(return)
range_end

define('rangex(range)d1,d2')
num = ('-' | '') span('0123456789') :(rangex_end)
rangex  range num . d1 '-' num . d2 = range(d1,d2) :s(rangex)
rangex = range :(return)
rangex_end

*       # Test and display
output = rangex('-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20')
end
```

{{out}}

```-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
```

## Tailspin

```
composer expand
[<element>*]
rule element: <range|INT> (<','>?)
rule range: (def start: <INT>; <'-'>) <INT> -> \$start..\$
end expand

'-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20' -> expand -> !OUT::write

```

{{out}}

```
[-6, -3, -2, -1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20]

```

## Tcl

```proc rangeExpand desc {
set result {}
foreach term [split \$desc ","] {
set count [scan \$term %d-%d from to]
if {\$count == 1} {
lappend result \$from
} elseif {\$count == 2} {
for {set i \$from} {\$i <= \$to} {incr i} {lappend result \$i}
}
}
return \$result
}

puts [rangeExpand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"]
```

{{out}}

```-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20
```

## TUSCRIPT

```\$\$ MODE TUSCRIPT
rangednrs="-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
expandnrs=SPLIT (rangednrs,":,:")

LOOP/CLEAR r=expandnrs
test=STRINGS (r,":><-><<>>/:")
sz_test=SIZE (test)
IF (sz_test==1) THEN
expandnrs=APPEND (expandnrs,r)
ELSE
r=SPLIT (r,"::<|->/::-:",beg,end)
expandnrs=APPEND (expandnrs,beg)
LOOP/CLEAR next=beg,end
next=next+1
expandnrs=APPEND (expandnrs,next)
IF (next==end) EXIT
ENDLOOP
ENDIF
ENDLOOP
expandnrs= JOIN (expandnrs,",")

PRINT expandnrs
```

{{out}}

```
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## TXR

A solution with three main parts:

• a parse-expression-grammar driven parser to decimate the input to a Lisp data structure;
• some Lisp code to expand the list, sort it, and remove duplicates (recursion, hashing, sorting).
• driver code which matches the input with the grammar, and produces output with the help of the Lisp code.

The grammar is:

```num := [ + | - ] { digit } +

entry := num [ ws ] - [ ws ] num
|  num

rangelist := entry [ ws ] , [ ws ] rangelist
|  entry
|  /* empty */
```

Code:

```@(define num (n))@(local tok)@{tok /[+\-]?\d+/}@(bind n @(int-str tok))@(end)
@(define entry (e))@\
@(local n1 n2)@\
@(cases)@\
@(num n1)@/\s*-\s*/@(num n2)@\
@(bind e (n1 n2))@\
@(or)@\
@(num n1)@\
@(bind e n1)@\
@(end)@\
@(end)
@(define rangelist (list))@\
@(local first rest)@\
@(cases)@\
@(entry first)@/\s*,\s*/@(rangelist rest)@\
@(bind list @(cons first rest))@\
@(or)@\
@(entry first)@\
@(bind list (first))@\
@(or)@\
@(bind list nil)@\
@(end)@\
@(end)
@(do
(defun expand-helper (list)
(cond
((null list) nil)
((consp (first list))
(append (range (first (first list))
(second (first list)))
(rangeexpand (rest list))))
(t (cons (first list) (rangeexpand (rest list))))))

(defun rangeexpand (list)
(uniq (expand-helper list))))
@(repeat)
@(rangelist x)@{trailing-junk}
@(output)
raw syntax: @x
expansion:  @(rangeexpand x)
@(end)
@(end)
```

{{out|Run}}

```\$ txr range-expansion.txr -
1,2,3-5,-3--1
raw syntax: 1 2 (3 5) (-3 -1)
expansion:  (-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5)
-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20
raw syntax: -6 (-3 -1) (3 5) (7 11) 14 15 (17 20)
expansion:  (-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20)
-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20,cg@foo
raw syntax: -6 (-3 -1) (3 5) (7 11) 14 15 (17 20)
expansion:  (-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20)
```

Note how the junk in the last example does not contain the trailing comma. This is because the rangelist grammar production allows for an empty range, so syntax like "5," is valid: it's an entry followed by a comma and a rangelist, where the rangelist is empty.

## UNIX Shell

{{works with|bash}}

```#!/usr/bin/bash

range_expand () (
IFS=,
set -- \$1
n=\$#
for element; do
if [[ \$element =~ ^(-?[0-9]+)-(-?[0-9]+)\$ ]]; then
set -- "\$@" \$(eval echo "{\${BASH_REMATCH[1]}..\${BASH_REMATCH[2]}}")
else
set -- "\$@" \$element
fi
done
shift \$n
echo "\$@"
# to return a comma-separated value: echo "\${*// /,}"
)

range_expand "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20"
```

{{out}}

```-6 -3 -2 -1 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 14 15 17 18 19 20
```

## Ursala

```#import std
#import int

rex = sep`,; zrange+*= %zp~~htttPzztPQhQXbiNC+ rlc ~&r~=`-

#cast %zL

t = rex '-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20'
```

{{out}}

```<-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20>
```

## VBA

```Public Function RangeExpand(AString as string)
' return a list with the numbers expressed in AString
Dim Splits() As String
Dim List() As Integer
Dim count As Integer

count = -1 'to start a zero-based List() array
' first split it using comma as delimiter
Splits = Split(AString, ",")
' process all fragments
For Each fragment In Splits
'is there a "-" in it (do not consider first character)?
P = InStr(2, fragment, "-")
If P > 0 Then 'yes, so it's a range: find start and end numbers
nstart = Val(left\$(fragment, P - 1))
nend = Val(Mid\$(fragment, P + 1))
j = count
count = count + (nend - nstart + 1)
'add numbers in range to List
ReDim Preserve List(count)
For i = nstart To nend
j = j + 1
List(j) = i
Next
Else
'not a range, add a single number
count = count + 1
ReDim Preserve List(count)
List(count) = Val(fragment)
End If
Next
RangeExpand = List
End Function

Public Sub RangeExpandTest()
'test function RangeExpand
Dim X As Variant

X = RangeExpand("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")
'print X
Debug.Print "Result:"
For Each el In X
Debug.Print el;
Next
Debug.Print
End Sub
```

{{out}}

```
RangeExpandTest
Result:
-6 -3 -2 -1  3  4  5  7  8  9  10  11  14  15  17  18  19  20

```

## XPL0

```include c:\cxpl\codes;          \intrinsic 'code' declarations
string 0;                       \use zero-terminated strings, instead of MSb
char Str;
int  Char, Inx;

proc GetCh;                     \Get character from Str
[Char:= Str(Inx);
Inx:= Inx+1;
]; \GetCh

func GetNum;                    \Get number from Str and return its value
int Neg, Num;
[Neg:= false;
if Char = ^- then [Neg:= true;  GetCh];
Num:= 0;
while Char>=^0 & Char<=^9 do
[Num:= Num*10 + Char-^0;
GetCh;
];
return if Neg then -Num else Num;
]; \GetNum

int I, N0, N1;
[Str:= "-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20";
Inx:= 0;
GetCh;                          \one character look ahead
loop    [N0:= GetNum;
IntOut(0,N0);
case Char of
^,:   [GetCh;  ChOut(0,^,)];
^-:   [GetCh;
N1:= GetNum;
for I:= N0+1 to N1 do   \expand range
[ChOut(0,^,);  IntOut(0,I)];
if Char=^, then [GetCh;  ChOut(0,^,)] else quit]
other   quit;                   \must be 0 string terminator
];
CrLf(0);
]
```

{{out}}

```
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```

## Yabasic

```print RangeExpand\$("-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20")

sub RangeExpand\$(s\$)
local w\$(1), n, i, r\$, p, a, b

n = token(s\$, w\$(), ",")

for i = 1 to n
p = instr(w\$(i), "-", 2)
if p then
a = val(left\$(w\$(i), p-1))
b = val(right\$(w\$(i), len(w\$(i)) - p))
repeat
r\$ = r\$ + str\$(a) + ","
a = a + 1
until(a > b)
else
r\$ = r\$ + w\$(i) + ","
end if
next
return left\$(r\$, len(r\$) - 1)
end sub

```

## zkl

```fcn rangex(s){
fcn(s,re){
if (re.search(s)){
a,b:=re.matched[1,*].apply("toInt");
[a..b].walk();
}
else s;
} :
s.split(",").pump(List, _.fp1(RegExp(0'|(.*\d+)-(.*\d+)|)))
.flatten().concat(",");
}
```
```ns="-6,-3-1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20";
rangex(ns).println();

ns="-6,-3--1,3-5,7-11,14,15,17-20";
rangex(ns).println();
```

{{out}}

```
-6,-3,-2,-1,0,1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20
-6,-3,-2,-1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,14,15,17,18,19,20

```