⚠️ Warning: This is a draft ⚠️

This means it might contain formatting issues, incorrect code, conceptual problems, or other severe issues.

If you want to help to improve and eventually enable this page, please fork RosettaGit's repository and open a merge request on GitHub.

{{task|Prime Numbers}} A truncatable prime is a prime number that when you successively remove digits from one end of the prime, you are left with a new prime number.

;Examples: The number '''997''' is called a ''left-truncatable prime'' as the numbers '''997''', '''97''', and '''7''' are all prime.

The number '''7393''' is a ''right-truncatable prime'' as the numbers '''7393''', '''739''', '''73''', and '''7''' formed by removing digits from its right are also prime.

No zeroes are allowed in truncatable primes.

;Task: The task is to find the largest left-truncatable and right-truncatable primes less than one million (base 10 is implied).

• [[Find largest left truncatable prime in a given base]]
• [[Sieve of Eratosthenes]]

• [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TruncatablePrime.html Truncatable Prime] from MathWorld.]

```

procedure Truncatable_Primes is
package Natural_Set is new Ada.Containers.Ordered_Sets (Natural);
use Natural_Set;

Primes : Set;

function Is_Prime (N : Natural) return Boolean is
Position : Cursor := First (Primes);
begin
while Has_Element (Position) loop
if N mod Element (Position) = 0 then
return False;
end if;
Position := Next (Position);
end loop;
return True;
end Is_Prime;

function Is_Left_Trucatable_Prime (N : Positive) return Boolean is
M : Natural := 1;
begin
while Contains (Primes, N mod (M * 10)) and (N / M) mod 10 > 0 loop
M := M * 10;
if N <= M then
return True;
end if;
end loop;
return False;
end Is_Left_Trucatable_Prime;

function Is_Right_Trucatable_Prime (N : Positive) return Boolean is
M : Natural := N;
begin
while Contains (Primes, M) and M mod 10 > 0 loop
M := M / 10;
if M <= 1 then
return True;
end if;
end loop;
return False;
end Is_Right_Trucatable_Prime;

Position : Cursor;
begin
for N in 2..1_000_000 loop
if Is_Prime (N) then
Insert (Primes, N);
end if;
end loop;
Position := Last (Primes);
while Has_Element (Position) loop
if Is_Left_Trucatable_Prime (Element (Position)) then
Put_Line ("Largest LTP from 1..1000000:" & Integer'Image (Element (Position)));
exit;
end if;
Previous (Position);
end loop;
Position := Last (Primes);
while Has_Element (Position) loop
if Is_Right_Trucatable_Prime (Element (Position)) then
Put_Line ("Largest RTP from 1..1000000:" & Integer'Image (Element (Position)));
exit;
end if;
Previous (Position);
end loop;
end Truncatable_Primes;

```

Sample output:

```
Largest LTP from 1..1000000: 998443
Largest RTP from 1..1000000: 739399

```

## ALGOL 68

{{trans|C}} Note: This specimen retains the original [[#C|C]] coding style. {{works with|ALGOL 68|Revision 1 - no extensions to language used.}} {{works with|ALGOL 68G|Any - tested with release [http://sourceforge.net/projects/algol68/files/algol68g/algol68g-1.18.0/algol68g-1.18.0-9h.tiny.el5.centos.fc11.i386.rpm/download 1.18.0-9h.tiny].}} {{wont work with|ELLA ALGOL 68|Any (with appropriate job cards) - tested with release [http://sourceforge.net/projects/algol68/files/algol68toc/algol68toc-1.8.8d/algol68toc-1.8-8d.fc9.i386.rpm/download 1.8-8d] - due to extensive use of '''format'''[ted] ''transput''.}}

```#!/usr/local/bin/a68g --script #

PROC is prime = (INT n)BOOL:(
[]BOOL is short prime=(FALSE, TRUE, TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, FALSE, FALSE);
IF n<=UPB is short prime THEN is short prime[n] # EXIT # ELSE
IF ( NOT ODD n | TRUE | n MOD 3 = 0 ) THEN FALSE # EXIT # ELSE
INT h := ENTIER sqrt(n)+3;
FOR a FROM 7 BY 6 WHILE a<h DO
IF ( n MOD a = 0 | TRUE |  n MOD (a-2) = 0 ) THEN false exit FI
OD;
TRUE # EXIT #
FI
FI EXIT
false exit: FALSE
);

PROC string to int = (STRING in a)INT:(
FILE f; STRING a := in a; associate(f, a);
INT i; get(f, i); close(f);
i
);

PROC is trunc prime = (INT in n, PROC(REF STRING)VOID trunc)BOOL: (
INT n := in n;
STRING s := whole(n, 0);
IF char in string("0", NIL, s) THEN FALSE # EXIT #
ELSE
WHILE is prime(n) DO
s := whole(n, 0);
trunc(s);
IF UPB s = 0 THEN true exit FI;
n := string to int(s)
OD;
FALSE EXIT
true exit: TRUE
FI
);

PROC get trunc prime = (INT in n, PROC(REF STRING)VOID trunc)VOID:(
FOR n FROM in n BY -1 TO 1 DO
IF is trunc prime(n, trunc) THEN
printf((\$g(0)l\$, n));
break
FI
OD;
break: ~
);

main:(
INT limit = 1000000;
printf((\$g g(0) gl\$,"Highest left- and right-truncatable primes under ",limit,":"));
get trunc prime(limit, (REF STRING s)VOID: s := s[LWB s+1:]);
get trunc prime(limit, (REF STRING s)VOID: s := s[:UPB s-1]);
write("Press Enter");
)
```

Output:

```
Highest left- and right-truncatable primes under 1000000:
998443
739399
Press Enter

```

## Arturo

```leftTrunc [num]{
str \$(toString num)
ret #()
loop \$(range 0 \$(size str)-1) [x]{
ret ret + \$(slice str x \$(size str))
}
return \$(map ret { toNumber & })
}

rightTrunc [num]{
str \$(toString num)
ret #()
loop \$(range \$(size str) 1) [x]{
ret ret + \$(slice str 0 x)
}
return \$(map ret { toNumber & })
}

isTruncatablePrime [nums]{ all nums { isPrime & } }

MaxLeft 0
MaxRight 0

loop \$(range 3 1000000 2) [n]{
if \$(isTruncatablePrime \$(leftTrunc n)) { MaxLeft n }
if \$(isTruncatablePrime \$(rightTrunc n)) { MaxRight n }
}

print "Max Left-Truncatable Prime found (<1000000): " + MaxLeft
print "Max Right-Truncatable Prime found (<1000000): " + MaxRight
```

{{out}}

```Max Left-Truncatable Prime found (<1000000): 998443
Max Right-Truncatable Prime found (<1000000): 739399
```

## AutoHotkey

```SetBatchLines, -1
MsgBox, % "Largest left-truncatable and right-truncatable primes less than one million:`n"
. "Left:`t" LTP(10 ** 6) "`nRight:`t" RTP(10 ** 6)

LTP(n) {
while n {
n--
if (!Instr(n, "0") && IsPrime(n)) {
Loop, % StrLen(n)
if (!IsPrime(SubStr(n, A_Index)))
continue, 2
break
}
}
return, n
}

RTP(n) {
while n {
n--
if (!IsPrime(SubStr(n, 1, 1)))
n -= 10 ** (StrLen(n) - 1)
if (!Instr(n, "0") && IsPrime(n)) {
Loop, % StrLen(n)
if (!IsPrime(SubStr(n, 1, A_Index)))
continue, 2
break
}
}
return, n
}

IsPrime(n) {
if (n < 2)
return, 0
else if (n < 4)
return, 1
else if (!Mod(n, 2))
return, 0
else if (n < 9)
return 1
else if (!Mod(n, 3))
return, 0
else {
r := Floor(Sqrt(n))
f := 5
while (f <= r) {
if (!Mod(n, f))
return, 0
if (!Mod(n, (f + 2)))
return, 0
f += 6
}
return, 1
}
}
```

'''Output:'''

```Largest left-truncatable and right-truncatable primes less than one million:
Left:	998443
Right:	739399
```

## AWK

```
# syntax: GAWK -f TRUNCATABLE_PRIMES.AWK
BEGIN {
limit = 1000000
for (i=1; i<=limit; i++) {
if (is_prime(i)) {
prime_count++
arr[i] = ""
if (truncate_left(i) == 1) {
max_left = max(max_left,i)
}
if (truncate_right(i) == 1) {
max_right = max(max_right,i)
}
}
}
printf("1-%d: %d primes\n",limit,prime_count)
printf("largest L truncatable: %d\n",max_left)
printf("largest R truncatable: %d\n",max_right)
exit(0)
}
function is_prime(x,  i) {
if (x <= 1) {
return(0)
}
for (i=2; i<=int(sqrt(x)); i++) {
if (x % i == 0) {
return(0)
}
}
return(1)
}
function truncate_left(n) {
while (n != "") {
if (!(n in arr)) {
return(0)
}
n = substr(n,2)
}
return(1)
}
function truncate_right(n) {
while (n != "") {
if (!(n in arr)) {
return(0)
}
n = substr(n,1,length(n)-1)
}
return(1)
}
function max(x,y) { return((x > y) ? x : y) }

```

{{out}}

```
1-1000000: 78498 primes
largest L truncatable: 998443
largest R truncatable: 739399

```

## Bracmat

Primality test: In an attempt to compute the result of taking a (not too big, 2^32 or 2^64, depending on word size) number to a fractional power, Bracmat computes the prime factors of the number and checks whether the powers of prime factors make the fractional power go away. If the number is prime, the output of the computation is the same as the input.

```( 1000001:?i
&   whl
' ( !i+-2:>0:?i
& !i:?L
& whl'(!L^1/2:#?^1/2&@(!L:% ?L))
& !L:~
)
& out\$("left:" !i)
& 1000001:?i
&   whl
' ( !i+-2:>0:?i
& !i:?R
& whl'(!R^1/2:#?^1/2&@(!R:?R %@))
& !R:~
)
& out\$("right:" !i)
)
```

Output:

```left: 998443
right: 739399
```

## C

```#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#define MAX_PRIME 1000000
char *primes;
int n_primes;

/*  Sieve. If we were to handle 10^9 range, use bit field. Regardless,
*  if a large amount of prime numbers need to be tested, sieve is fast.
*/
void init_primes()
{
int j;
primes = malloc(sizeof(char) * MAX_PRIME);
memset(primes, 1, MAX_PRIME);
primes[0] = primes[1] = 0;
int i = 2;
while (i * i < MAX_PRIME) {
for (j = i * 2; j < MAX_PRIME; j += i)
primes[j] = 0;
while (++i < MAX_PRIME && !primes[i]);
}
}

int left_trunc(int n)
{
int tens = 1;
while (tens < n) tens *= 10;

while (n) {
if (!primes[n]) return 0;
tens /= 10;
if (n < tens) return 0;
n %= tens;
}
return 1;
}

int right_trunc(int n)
{
while (n) {
if (!primes[n]) return 0;
n /= 10;
}
return 1;
}

int main()
{
int n;
int max_left = 0, max_right = 0;
init_primes();

for (n = MAX_PRIME - 1; !max_left;  n -= 2)
if (left_trunc(n)) max_left = n;

for (n = MAX_PRIME - 1; !max_right; n -= 2)
if (right_trunc(n)) max_right = n;

printf("Left: %d; right: %d\n", max_left, max_right);
return 0;
}
```

outputLeft: 998443; right: 739399

```

Faster way of doing primality test for small numbers (1000000 isn't big), and generating truncatable primes bottom-up:

```c
#include <stdio.h>

#define MAXN 1000000
int maxl, maxr;

int is_prime(int n)
{
int p;
if (n % 3 == 0) return 0;

for (p = 6; p * p <= n; p += 6)
if (!(n % (p + 1) && n % (p + 5)))
return 0;
return 1;
}

void left(int n, int tens)
{
int i, nn;

if (n > maxl) maxl = n;
if (n < MAXN / 10)
for (tens *= 10, i = 1; i < 10; i++)
if (is_prime(nn = i * tens + n))
left(nn, tens);
}

void right(int n)
{
int i, nn;
static int d[] = {1,3,7,9};

if (n > maxr) maxr = n;
if (n < MAXN / 10)
for (i = 1; i < 4; i++)
if (is_prime(nn = n * 10 + d[i])) right(nn);
}

int main(void)
{
left(3, 1); left(7, 1);
right(3); right(5); right(7);

printf("%d %d\n", maxl, maxr);

return 0;
}
```

{{out}}

```
998443 739399

```

## C#

```using System;  // [email protected]
using System.Collections.Generic;
class truncatable_primes
{
static void Main()
{
uint m = 1000000;
Console.Write("L " + L(m) + " R " + R(m) + "  ");
var sw = System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch.StartNew();
for (int i = 1000; i > 0; i--) { L(m); R(m); }
}

static uint L(uint n)
{
n -= n & 1; n--;
for (uint d, d1 = 100; ; n -= 2)
{
while (n % 3 == 0 || n % 5 == 0 || n % 7 == 0) n -= 2;
if ((d = n % 10) == 3 || d == 7)
{
while (d1 < n && d < (d = n % d1) && isP(d)) d1 *= 10;
if (d1 > n && isP(n)) return n; d1 = 100;
}
}
}

static uint R(uint m)
{
var p = new List<uint>() { 2, 3, 5, 7 }; uint n = 20, np;
for (int i = 1; i < p.Count; n = 10 * p[i++])
{
if ((np = n + 1) >= m) break; if (isP(np)) p.Add(np);
if ((np = n + 3) >= m) break; if (isP(np)) p.Add(np);
if ((np = n + 7) >= m) break; if (isP(np)) p.Add(np);
if ((np = n + 9) >= m) break; if (isP(np)) p.Add(np);
}
return p[p.Count - 1];
}

static bool isP(uint n)
{
if (n < 7) return n == 2 || n == 3 || n == 5;
if ((n & 1) == 0 || n % 3 == 0 || n % 5 == 0) return false;
for (uint r = (uint)Math.Sqrt(n), d = 7; d <= r; d += 30)
if (n % (d + 00) == 0 || n % (d + 04) == 0 ||
n % (d + 06) == 0 || n % (d + 10) == 0 ||
n % (d + 12) == 0 || n % (d + 16) == 0 ||
n % (d + 22) == 0 || n % (d + 24) == 0) return false;
return true;
}
}
```
```Output:  L 998443 R 739399   24 μs
```

## Clojure

```(use '[clojure.contrib.lazy-seqs :only [primes]])

(def prime?
(let [mem (ref #{})
primes (ref primes)]
(fn [n]
(dosync
(if (< n (first @primes))
(@mem n)
(let [[mems ss] (split-with #(<= % n) @primes)]
(ref-set primes ss)
((commute mem into mems) n)))))))

(defn drop-lefts [n]
(let [dropl #(if (< % 10) 0 (Integer. (subs (str %) 1)))]
(->> (iterate dropl n)
(take-while pos? ,)
next)))

(defn drop-rights [n]
(->> (iterate #(quot % 10) n)
next
(take-while pos? ,)))

(defn truncatable-left? [n]
(every? prime? (drop-lefts n)))

(defn truncatable-right? [n]
(every? prime? (drop-rights n)))

user> (->> (for [p primes
:while (< p 1000000)
:when (not-any? #{\0} (str p))
:let [l? (if (truncatable-left? p) p 0)
r? (if (truncatable-right? p) p 0)]
:when (or l? r?)]
[l? r?])
((juxt #(apply max-key first %) #(apply max-key second %)) ,)
((juxt ffirst (comp second second)) ,)
(map vector ["left truncatable: " "right truncatable: "] ,))
(["left truncatable: " 998443] ["right truncatable: " 739399])
```

## CoffeeScript

```# You could have symmetric algorithms for max right and left
# truncatable numbers, but they lend themselves to slightly
# different optimizations.

max_right_truncatable_number = (n, f) ->
# This algorithm only evaluates 37 numbers for primeness to
# get the max right truncatable prime < 1000000.  Its
# optimization is that it prunes candidates for
# the first n-1 digits before having to iterate through
# the 10 possibilities for the last digit.
if n < 10
candidate = n
while candidate > 0
return candidate if f(candidate)
candidate -= 1
else
left = Math.floor n / 10
while left > 0
left = max_right_truncatable_number left, f
right = 9
while right > 0
candidate = left * 10 + right
return candidate if candidate <= n and f(candidate)
right -= 1
left -= 1
throw Error "none found"

max_left_truncatable_number = (max, f) ->
# This is a pretty straightforward countdown.  The first
# optimization here would probably be to cache results of
# calling f on small numbers.
is_left_truncatable = (n) ->
candidate = 0
power_of_ten = 1
while n > 0
r = n  % 10
return false if r == 0
n = Math.floor n / 10
candidate = r * power_of_ten + candidate
power_of_ten *= 10
return false unless f(candidate)
true
do ->
n = max
while n > 0
return n if is_left_truncatable n, f
n -= 1
throw Error "none found"

is_prime = (n) ->
return false if n == 1
return true if n == 2
for d in [2..n]
return false if n % d == 0
return true if d * d >= n

console.log "right", max_right_truncatable_number(999999, is_prime)
console.log "left", max_left_truncatable_number(999999, is_prime)

```

output

coffee truncatable_prime.coffee right 739399 left 998443

```

## Common Lisp

```lsip

(defun start ()
(format t "Largest right-truncatable ~a~%" (max-right-truncatable))
(format t "Largest left-truncatable  ~a~%" (max-left-truncatable)))

(defun max-right-truncatable ()
(loop for el in (6-digits-R-truncatables)
maximizing el into max
finally (return max)))

(defun 6-digits-R-truncatables (&optional (lst '(2 3 5 7)) (n 5))
(if (zerop n)
lst
(6-digits-R-truncatables (R-trunc lst) (- n 1))))

(defun R-trunc (lst)
(remove-if (lambda (x) (not (primep x)))
(loop for el in lst
append (mapcar (lambda (x) (+ (* 10 el) x)) '(1 3 7 9)))))

(defun max-left-truncatable ()
(loop for el in (6-digits-L-truncatables)
maximizing el into max
finally (return max)))

(defun 6-digits-L-truncatables (&optional (lst '(3 7)) (n 5))
(if (zerop n)
lst
(6-digits-L-truncatables (L-trunc lst (- 6 n)) (- n 1))))

(defun L-trunc (lst n)
(remove-if (lambda (x) (not (primep x)))
(loop for el in lst
append (mapcar (lambda (x) (+ (* (expt 10 n) x) el)) '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)))))

(defun primep (n)
(primep-aux n 2))

(defun primep-aux (n d)
(cond ((> d (sqrt n)) t)
((zerop (rem n d)) nil)
(t (primep-aux n (+ d 1)))))

```

{{out}}

```Largest right-truncatable 739399
Largest left-truncatable  998443
```

## D

```import std.stdio, std.math, std.string, std.conv, std.algorithm,
std.range;

bool isPrime(in int n) pure nothrow {
if (n <= 1)
return false;
foreach (immutable i; 2 .. cast(int)sqrt(real(n)) + 1)
if (!(n % i))
return false;
return true;
}

bool isTruncatablePrime(bool left)(in int n) pure {
immutable s = n.text;
if (s.canFind('0'))
return false;
foreach (immutable i; 0 .. s.length)
static if (left) {
if (!s[i .. \$].to!int.isPrime)
return false;
} else {
if (!s[0 .. i + 1].to!int.isPrime)
return false;
}
return true;
}

void main() {
enum n = 1_000_000;
writeln("Largest left-truncatable prime in 2 .. ", n, ": ",
iota(n, 1, -1).filter!(isTruncatablePrime!true).front);
writeln("Largest right-truncatable prime in 2 .. ", n, ": ",
iota(n, 1, -1).filter!(isTruncatablePrime!false).front);
}
```

{{out}}

```Largest left-truncatable prime in 2 .. 1000000: 998443
Largest right-truncatable prime in 2 .. 1000000: 739399
```

## EchoLisp

```
;; does p include a 0 in its decimal representation ?
(define (nozero? n) (= -1 (string-index (number->string n) "0")))

;; right truncate : p and successive quotients by 10 (integer division) must be primes
(define (right-trunc p) (unless (zero? p)
(and (prime? p) (right-trunc (quotient p 10)))))
(remember 'right-trunc)

;; left truncate : p and successive modulo by 10, 100, .. must be prime
(define (left-trunc p (mod 1000000))
(unless (< mod 1)
(and (prime? p) (nozero? p) (left-trunc (modulo p mod) (/ mod 10)))))

;; start from 999999. stop on first found
(define (fact-trunc trunc)
(for ((p (in-range 999999 100000 -1))) #:break (when (trunc p) (writeln p) #t)))

```

Output:

```
(fact-trunc left-trunc)
998443
(fact-trunc right-trunc)
739399

```

## Eiffel

```
class
APPLICATION

create
make

feature

make
do
io.put_string ("Largest right truncatable prime: " + find_right_truncatable_primes.out)
io.new_line
io.put_string ("Largest left truncatable prime: " + find_left_truncatable_primes.out)
end

find_right_truncatable_primes: INTEGER
-- Largest right truncatable prime below 1000000.
local
i, maybe_prime: INTEGER
found, is_one: BOOLEAN
do
from
i := 999999
until
found
loop
is_one := True
from
maybe_prime := i
until
not is_one  or maybe_prime.out.count = 1
loop
if maybe_prime.out.has ('0') or maybe_prime.out.has ('2') or maybe_prime.out.has ('4') or maybe_prime.out.has ('6') or maybe_prime.out.has ('8') then
is_one := False
else
if not is_prime (maybe_prime)  then
is_one := False
elseif is_prime (maybe_prime) and maybe_prime.out.count > 1 then
maybe_prime := truncate_right (maybe_prime)
end
end
end
if is_one then
found := True
Result := i
end
i := i - 2
end
ensure
Result_is_smaller: Result < 1000000
end

find_left_truncatable_primes: INTEGER
-- Largest left truncatable prime below 1000000.
local
i, maybe_prime: INTEGER
found, is_one: BOOLEAN
do
from
i := 999999
until
found
loop
is_one := True
from
maybe_prime := i
until
not is_one or maybe_prime.out.count = 1
loop
if not is_prime (maybe_prime) then
is_one := False
elseif is_prime (maybe_prime) and maybe_prime.out.count > 1 then
if maybe_prime.out.at (2) = '0' then
is_one := False
else
maybe_prime := truncate_left (maybe_prime)
end
end
end
if is_one then
found := True
Result := i
end
i := i - 2
end
ensure
Result_is_smaller: Result < 1000000
end

feature {NONE}

is_prime (n: INTEGER): BOOLEAN
--Is 'n' a prime number?
require
positiv_input: n > 0
local
i: INTEGER
max: REAL_64
math: DOUBLE_MATH
do
create math
if n = 2 then
Result := True
elseif n <= 1 or n \\ 2 = 0 then
Result := False
else
Result := True
max := math.sqrt (n)
from
i := 3
until
i > max
loop
if n \\ i = 0 then
Result := False
end
i := i + 2
end
end
end

truncate_left (n: INTEGER): INTEGER
-- 'n' truncated by one digit from the left side.
require
truncatable: n.out.count > 1
local
st: STRING
do
st := n.out
Result := st.to_integer
ensure
Result_truncated: Result.out.count = n.out.count - 1
end

truncate_right (n: INTEGER): INTEGER
-- 'n' truncated by one digit from the right side.
require
truncatable: n.out.count > 1
local
st: STRING
do
st := n.out
st.remove_tail (1)
Result := st.to_integer
ensure
Result_truncated: Result.out.count = n.out.count - 1
end

end

```

{{out}}

```
Largest right truncatable prime: 739399
Largest left truncatable prime: 999431

```

## Elena

ELENA 4.x :

```import system'calendar;
import extensions;

const MAXN = 1000000;

extension mathOp
{
isPrime()
{
int n := cast int(self);

if (n < 2) { ^ false };
if (n < 4) { ^ true };
if (n mod:2 == 0) { ^ false };
if (n < 9) { ^ true };
if (n mod:3 == 0) { ^ false };

int r := n.sqrt();
int f := 5;
while (f <= r)
{
if ((n.mod(f) == 0) || (n.mod(f + 2) == 0))
{ ^ false };

f := f + 6
};

^ true
}

isRightTruncatable()
{
int n := self;

while (n != 0)
{
ifnot (n.isPrime())
{ ^ false };

n := n / 10
};

^ true
}

isLeftTruncatable()
{
int n := self;
int tens := 1;

while (tens < n)
{ tens := tens * 10 };

while (n != 0)
{
ifnot (n.isPrime())
{ ^ false };

tens := tens / 10;
n := n - (n / tens * tens)
};

^ true
}
}

program()
{
var n := MAXN;
var max_lt := 0;
var max_rt := 0;

while (max_lt == 0 || max_rt == 0)
{
if(n.toString().indexOf("0") == -1)
{
if ((max_lt == 0) && (n.isLeftTruncatable()))
{
max_lt := n
};

if ((max_rt == 0) && (n.isRightTruncatable()))
{
max_rt := n
}
};

n := n - 1
};

console.printLine("Largest truncable left is ",max_lt);
console.printLine("Largest truncable right is ",max_rt);
}
```

{{out}}

```
Largest truncable left is 998443
Largest truncable right is 739399

```

## Elixir

{{trans|Ruby}}

```defmodule Prime do
defp left_truncatable?(n, prime) do
func = fn i when i<=9 -> 0
i           -> to_string(i) |> String.slice(1..-1) |> String.to_integer end
truncatable?(n, prime, func)
end

defp right_truncatable?(n, prime) do
truncatable?(n, prime, fn i -> div(i, 10) end)
end

defp truncatable?(n, prime, trunc_func) do
if to_string(n) |> String.match?(~r/0/),
do:   false,
else: trunc_loop(trunc_func.(n), prime, trunc_func)
end

defp trunc_loop(0, _prime, _trunc_func), do: true
defp trunc_loop(n, prime, trunc_func) do
if elem(prime,n), do: trunc_loop(trunc_func.(n), prime, trunc_func), else: false
end

def eratosthenes(limit) do            # descending order
Enum.to_list(2..limit) |> sieve(:math.sqrt(limit), [])
end

defp sieve([h|_]=list, max, sieved) when h>max, do: Enum.reverse(list, sieved)
defp sieve([h | t], max, sieved) do
list = for x <- t, rem(x,h)>0, do: x
sieve(list, max, [h | sieved])
end

defp prime_table(_, [], list), do: [false, false | list]
defp prime_table(n, [n|t], list), do: prime_table(n-1, t,      [true|list])
defp prime_table(n, prime, list), do: prime_table(n-1, prime, [false|list])

prime = eratosthenes(limit)
prime_tuple = prime_table(limit, prime, []) |> List.to_tuple
left = Enum.find(prime, fn n -> left_truncatable?(n, prime_tuple) end)
IO.puts "Largest left-truncatable prime : #{left}"
right = Enum.find(prime, fn n -> right_truncatable?(n, prime_tuple) end)
IO.puts "Largest right-truncatable prime: #{right}"
end
end

```

{{out}}

```
Largest left-truncatable prime : 998443
Largest right-truncatable prime: 739399

```

## Factor

USING: formatting fry grouping.extras kernel literals math math.parser math.primes sequences ; IN: rosetta-code.truncatable-primes

CONSTANT: primes \$[ 1,000,000 primes-upto reverse ]

: number>digits ( n -- B{} ) number>string string>digits ;

: no-zeros? ( seq -- ? ) [ zero? not ] all? ;

: all-prime? ( seq -- ? ) [ prime? ] all? ;

: truncate ( seq quot -- seq' ) call( seq -- seq' ) [ 10 digits>integer ] map ;

: truncate-right ( seq -- seq' ) [ head-clump ] truncate ;

: truncate-left ( seq -- seq' ) [ tail-clump ] truncate ;

: truncatable-prime? ( n quot -- ? ) [ number>digits ] dip '[ @ all-prime? ] [ no-zeros? ] bi and ; inline

: right-truncatable-prime? ( n -- ? ) [ truncate-right ] truncatable-prime? ;

: left-truncatable-prime? ( n -- ? ) [ truncate-left ] truncatable-prime? ;

: find-truncatable-primes ( -- ltp rtp ) primes [ [ left-truncatable-prime? ] find nip ] [ [ right-truncatable-prime? ] find nip ] bi ;

: main ( -- ) find-truncatable-primes "Left: %d\nRight: %d\n" printf ;

MAIN: main

```
{{out}}

```txt

Left: 998443
Right: 739399

```

## Fortran

{{works with|Fortran|95 and later}}

```module primes_mod
implicit none

logical, allocatable :: primes(:)

contains

subroutine Genprimes(parr)
logical, intent(in out) :: parr(:)
integer :: i
! Prime sieve
parr = .true.
parr (1) = .false.
parr (4 : size(parr) : 2) = .false.
do i = 3, int (sqrt (real (size(parr)))), 2
if (parr(i)) parr(i * i : size(parr) : i) = .false.
end do

end subroutine

function is_rtp(candidate)
logical :: is_rtp
integer, intent(in) :: candidate
integer :: n

is_rtp = .true.
n = candidate / 10
do while(n > 0)
if(.not. primes(n)) then
is_rtp = .false.
return
end if
n = n / 10
end do

end function

function is_ltp(candidate)
logical :: is_ltp
integer, intent(in) :: candidate
integer :: i, n
character(10) :: nstr

write(nstr, "(i10)") candidate
is_ltp = .true.
do i = len_trim(nstr)-1, 1, -1
n = mod(candidate, 10**i)
if(.not. primes(n)) then
is_ltp = .false.
return
end if
end do
end function

end module primes_mod

program Truncatable_Primes
use primes_mod
implicit none

integer, parameter :: limit = 999999
integer :: i
character(10) :: nstr

! Generate an array of prime flags up to limit of search
allocate(primes(limit))
call Genprimes(primes)

! Find left truncatable prime
do i = limit, 1, -1
write(nstr, "(i10)") i
if(index(trim(nstr), "0") /= 0) cycle      ! check for 0 in number
if(is_ltp(i)) then
write(*, "(a, i0)") "Largest left truncatable prime below 1000000 is ", i
exit
end if
end do

! Find right truncatable prime
do i = limit, 1, -1
write(nstr, "(i10)") i
if(index(trim(nstr), "0") /= 0) cycle      ! check for 0 in number
if(is_rtp(i)) then
write(*, "(a, i0)") "Largest right truncatable prime below 1000000 is ", i
exit
end if
end do
end program
```

Output

```Largest left truncatable prime below 1000000 is 998443
Largest right truncatable prime below 1000000 is 739399
```

## FreeBASIC

### Version 1

```' FB 1.05.0 Win64

Function isPrime(n As Integer) As Boolean
If n Mod 2 = 0 Then Return n = 2
If n Mod 3 = 0 Then Return n = 3
Dim d As Integer = 5
While d * d <= n
If n Mod d = 0 Then Return False
d += 2
If n Mod d = 0 Then Return False
d += 4
Wend
Return True
End Function

Dim As UInteger i, j, p, pow, lMax = 2, rMax = 2
Dim s As String

' largest left truncatable prime less than 1000000
' It can't end with 1, 4, 6, 8 or 9 as these numbers are not prime
' Nor can it end in 2 if it has more than one digit as such a number would divide by 2
For i = 3 To 999997 Step 2
s = Str(i)
If Instr(s, "0") > 1 Then Continue For '' cannot contain 0
j = s[Len(s) - 1] - 48
If j = 1 OrElse j = 9 Then Continue For
p = i
pow = 10 ^ (Len(s) - 1)
While pow > 1
If Not isPrime(p) Then Continue For
p Mod= pow
pow \= 10
Wend
lMax = i
Next

' largest right truncatable prime less than 1000000
' It can't begin with 1, 4, 6, 8 or 9 as these numbers are not prime
For i = 3 To 799999 Step 2
s = Str(i)
If Instr(s, "0") > 1 Then Continue For '' cannot contain 0
j = s[0] - 48
If j = 1 OrElse j = 4 OrElse j = 6 Then Continue For
p = i
While p > 0
If Not isPrime(p) Then Continue For
p \= 10
Wend
rMax = i
Next

Print "Largest left  truncatable prime : "; lMax
Print "Largest right truncatable prime : "; rMax
Print
Print "Press any key to quit"
Sleep
```

{{out}}

```
Largest left  truncatable prime : 998443
Largest right truncatable prime : 739399

```

### Version 2

Construct primes using previous found primes.

```' version 10-12-2016
' compile with: fbc -s console

Dim Shared As Byte isPrime()

Sub sieve(m As UInteger)

Dim As Integer i, j
ReDim isPrime(m)

For i = 4 To m Step 2
isPrime(i) = 1
Next

For i = 3 To Sqr(m) Step 2
If isPrime(i) = 0 Then
For j = i * i To m Step i * 2
isPrime(j) = 1
Next
End If
Next

End Sub

' ------=< MAIN >=------

#Define max 1000000 'upto 2^30 max for 32bit OS

Dim As UInteger a(), lt_prime(5000), rt_prime(100)
Dim As UInteger i, j, j1, p1, p2, left_max, right_max

sieve(max)

' left truncatable primes
' if odd and ends with 3 or 7, never ends 1 or 9 (no prime
' never ends on a 2 or 5 and starts with 1 to 9
lt_prime(1) = 3 : lt_prime(2) = 7
p1 = 1 : p2 = 2

Do
For i = 1 To 9
j = Val( Str(i) + Str(lt_prime(p1)) )
If j > max Then Exit Do
If isPrime(j) = 0 Then ' if prime then add to the list
p2 += 1
lt_prime(p2) = j
If Left_max < j Then left_max = j
End If
Next
p1 += 1
Loop Until p1 > p2   ' no more numbers to process

' right truncatable prime
' start with 2, 3, 5 or 7 and end with 1, 3, 7 or 9
rt_prime(1) = 2 : rt_prime(2) = 3 : rt_prime(3) = 5 : rt_prime(4) = 7
p1 = 1 : p2 = 4
Dim As UInteger end_num(1 To 4) => {1, 3, 7, 9}

Do
j1 = rt_prime(p1) * 10
If j1 > max Then Exit Do
For i = 1 To 4
j = j1 + End_num(i)
If isprime(j) = 0 Then  ' if prime then add to the list
p2 += 1
rt_prime(p2) = j
' If right_max < j Then right_max = j
End If
Next
p1 += 1
Loop Until p1 > p2   ' no more numbers to process
' the last one added is the biggest
right_max = rt_prime(p2)

Print
Print "The biggest  left truncatable prime below"; max; " is "; left_max
Print "The biggest right truncatable prime below"; max; " is "; right_max

' empty keyboard buffer
While Inkey <> "" : Wend
Print : Print "hit any key to end program"
Sleep
End
```

{{out}}

```
The biggest  left truncatable prime below 1000000 is 998443
The biggest right truncatable prime below 1000000 is 739399
```

## Go

```package main

import "fmt"

func main() {
sieve(1e6)
if !search(6, 1e6, "left", func(n, pot int) int { return n % pot }) {
panic("997?")
}
if !search(6, 1e6, "right", func(n, _ int) int { return n / 10 }) {
panic("7393?")
}
}

var c []bool

func sieve(ss int) {
c = make([]bool, ss)
c[1] = true
for p := 2; ; {
p2 := p * p
if p2 >= ss {
break
}
for i := p2; i < ss; i += p {
c[i] = true
}
for {
p++
if !c[p] {
break
}
}
}
}

func search(digits, pot int, s string, truncFunc func(n, pot int) int) bool {
n := pot - 1
pot /= 10
smaller:
for ; n >= pot; n -= 2 {
for tn, tp := n, pot; tp > 0; tp /= 10 {
if tn < tp || c[tn] {
continue smaller
}
tn = truncFunc(tn, tp)
}
fmt.Println("max", s, "truncatable:", n)
return true
}
if digits > 1 {
return search(digits-1, pot, s, truncFunc)
}
return false
}
```

Output:

```
max left truncatable: 998443
max right truncatable: 739399

```

```import Data.Numbers.Primes(primes, isPrime)
import Data.List
import Control.Arrow

primes1e6 = reverse. filter (notElem '0'. show) \$ takeWhile(<=1000000) primes

rightT, leftT :: Int -> Bool
rightT = all isPrime. takeWhile(>0). drop 1. iterate (`div`10)
leftT x = all isPrime. takeWhile(<x).map (x`mod`) \$ iterate (*10) 10

main = do
let (ltp, rtp) = (head. filter leftT &&& head. filter rightT) primes1e6
putStrLn \$ "Left truncatable  " ++ show ltp
putStrLn \$ "Right truncatable " ++ show rtp
```

Output:

```*Main> main
Left truncatable  998443
Right truncatable 739399
```

Interpretation of the J contribution:

```digits = [1..9] :: [Integer]
smallPrimes = filter isPrime digits
pow10 = iterate (*10) 1
mul10 = (pow10!!). length. show
righT = (+) . (10 *)
lefT = liftM2 (.) (+) ((*) . mul10)

primesTruncatable f = iterate (concatMap (filter isPrime.flip map digits. f)) smallPrimes
```

Output:

```*Main> maximum \$ primesTruncatable righT !! 5
739399

*Main> maximum \$ primesTruncatable lefT !! 5
998443
```

```procedure main(arglist)
N := 0 < integer(\arglist[1]) | 1000000              # primes to generator 1 to ... (1M or 1st arglist)
D := (0 < integer(\arglist[2]) | 10) / 2             # primes to display (10 or 2nd arglist)
P := sieve(N)                                        # from sieve task (modified)
write("There are ",*P," prime numbers in the range 1 to ",N)
if *P <= 2*D then
every writes( "Primes: "|!sort(P)||" "|"\n" )
else
every writes( "Primes: "|(L := sort(P))[1 to D]||" "|"... "|L[*L-D+1 to *L]||" "|"\n" )
largesttruncateable(P)
end

procedure largesttruncateable(P)            #: find the largest left and right trucatable numbers in P
local ltp,rtp

every x  := sort(P)[*P to 1 by -1] do    # largest to smallest
if not find('0',x) then {
/ltp  := islefttrunc(P,x)
/rtp  := isrighttrunc(P,x)
if \ltp & \rtp then break          # until both found
}
write("Largest left truncatable prime  = ", ltp)
write("Largest right truncatable prime = ", rtp)
return
end

procedure isrighttrunc(P,x) #: return integer x if x and all right truncations of x are in P or fails
if x = 0 | (member(P,x) & isrighttrunc(P,x / 10)) then return x
end

procedure islefttrunc(P,x) #: return integer x if x and all left truncations of x are in P or fails
if *x = 0 | ( (x := integer(x)) & member(P,x) & islefttrunc(P,x[2:0]) ) then return x
end
```

Sample output:

```There are 78498 prime numbers in the range 1 to 1000000
Primes: 2 3 5 7 11 ... 999953 999959 999961 999979 999983
Largest left truncatable prime  = 998443
Largest right truncatable prime = 739399
```

Truncatable primes may be constructed by starting with a set of one digit prime numbers and then repeatedly adding a non-zero digit (combine all possibilities of a truncatable prime digit sequence with each digit) and, at each step, selecting the prime numbers which result.

In other words, given:

```selPrime=: #~ 1&p:
seed=: selPrime digits=: 1+i.9
step=: selPrime@,@:(,&.":/&>)@{@;
```

Here, selPrime discards non-prime numbers from a list, so seed is the list 2 3 5 7.

The largest truncatable primes less than a million can be obtained by adding five digits to the prime seeds, then finding the largest value from the result.

```./ digits&step^:5 seed  NB. left truncatable
998443
>./ step&digits^:5 seed  NB. right truncatable
739399
```

Note that we are using the same combining function and same basic procedure in both cases. The difference is which side of the number we add arbitrary digits to, for each step.

## Java

```import java.util.BitSet;

public class Main {

public static void main(String[] args){

final int MAX = 1000000;

//Sieve of Eratosthenes (using BitSet only for odd numbers)
BitSet primeList = new BitSet(MAX>>1);
primeList.set(0,primeList.size(),true);

int sqroot = (int) Math.sqrt(MAX);
primeList.clear(0);
for(int num = 3; num <= sqroot; num+=2)
{
if( primeList.get(num >> 1) )
{
int inc = num << 1;
for(int factor = num * num; factor < MAX; factor += inc)
{
//if( ((factor) & 1) == 1)
//{
primeList.clear(factor >> 1);
//}
}
}
}
//Sieve ends...

//Find Largest Truncatable Prime. (so we start from 1000000 - 1
int rightTrunc = -1, leftTrunc = -1;
for(int prime = (MAX - 1) | 1; prime >= 3; prime -= 2)
{
if(primeList.get(prime>>1))
{
if(rightTrunc == -1)
{
int right = prime;
while(right > 0 && right % 2 != 0 && primeList.get(right >> 1)) right /= 10;
if(right == 0) rightTrunc = prime;
}

if(leftTrunc == -1 )
{
//Left Truncation
String left = Integer.toString(prime);
if(!left.contains("0"))
{
while( left.length() > 0 ){
int iLeft = Integer.parseInt(left);
if(!primeList.get( iLeft >> 1)) break;
left = left.substring(1);
}
if(left.length() == 0) leftTrunc = prime;
}
}
if(leftTrunc != -1 && rightTrunc != -1) //Found both? then Stop loop
{
break;
}
}
}
System.out.println("Left  Truncatable : " + leftTrunc);
System.out.println("Right Truncatable : " + rightTrunc);
}
}

```

Output :

```
Left  Truncatable : 998443
Right Truncatable : 739399

```

## Julia

There are several features of Julia that make solving this task easy. Julia has excellent built-in support for prime generation and testing. The built-in mathematical functions prevpow and divrem are quite handy for implementing isltruncprime.

```
function isltruncprime{T<:Integer}(n::T, base::T=10)
isprime(n) || return false
p = n
f = prevpow(base, p)
while 1 < f
(d, p) = divrem(p, f)
isprime(p) || return false
d != 0 || return false
f = div(f, base)
end
return true
end

function isrtruncprime{T<:Integer}(n::T, base::T=10)
isprime(n) || return false
p = n
while base < p
p = div(p, base)
isprime(p) || return false
end
return true
end

hi = 10^6

for i in reverse(primes(hi))
isltruncprime(i) || continue
println("The largest  left truncatable prime ≤ ", hi, " is ", i, ".")
break
end

for i in reverse(primes(hi))
isrtruncprime(i) || continue
println("The largest right truncatable prime ≤ ", hi, " is ", i, ".")
break
end

```

{{out}}

```
The largest  left truncatable prime ≤ 1000000 is 998443.
The largest right truncatable prime ≤ 1000000 is 739399.

```

## Kotlin

{{trans|FreeBASIC}}

```//  version 1.0.5-2

fun isPrime(n: Int) : Boolean {
if (n < 2) return false
if (n % 2 == 0) return n == 2
if (n % 3 == 0) return n == 3
var d : Int = 5
while (d * d <= n) {
if (n % d == 0) return false
d += 2
if (n % d == 0) return false
d += 4
}
return true
}

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
var j: Char
var p: Int
var pow: Int
var lMax: Int = 2
var rMax: Int = 2
var s: String

// calculate maximum left truncatable prime less than 1 million
loop@ for( i in 3..999997 step 2) {
s = i.toString()
if ('0' in s) continue
j = s[s.length - 1]
if (j == '1' || j == '9') continue
p = i
pow = 1
for (k in 1..s.length - 1) pow *= 10
while(pow > 1) {
if (!isPrime(p)) continue@loop
p %= pow
pow /= 10
}
lMax = i
}

// calculate maximum right truncatable prime less than 1 million
loop@ for( i in 3..799999 step 2) {
s = i.toString()
if ('0' in s) continue
j = s[0]
if (j == '1' || j == '4' || j == '6') continue
p = i
while(p > 0) {
if (!isPrime(p)) continue@loop
p /= 10
}
rMax = i
}

println("Largest left  truncatable prime : " + lMax.toString())
println("Largest right truncatable prime : " + rMax.toString())
}
```

{{out}}

```
Largest left  truncatable prime : 998443
Largest right truncatable prime : 739399

```

## Lua

```max_number = 1000000

numbers = {}
for i = 2, max_number do
numbers[i] = i;
end

for i = 2, max_number do
for j = i+1, max_number do
if numbers[j] ~= 0 and j % i == 0 then numbers[j] = 0 end
end
end

max_prime_left, max_prime_right = 2, 2
for i = 2, max_number do
if numbers[i] ~= 0 then
local is_prime = true

local l = math.floor( i / 10 )
while l > 1 do
if numbers[l] == 0 then
is_prime = false
break
end
l = math.floor( l / 10 )
end
if is_prime then
max_prime_left = i
end

is_prime = true
local n = 10;
while math.floor( i % 10 ) ~= 0 and n < max_number do
if numbers[ math.floor( i % 10 ) ] ~= 0 then
is_prime = false
break
end
n = n * 10
end
if is_prime then
max_prime_right = i
end
end
end

print( "max_prime_left = ", max_prime_left )
print( "max_prime_right = ", max_prime_right )
```

## Maple

```
MaxTruncatablePrime := proc({left::truefalse:=FAIL, right::truefalse:=FAIL}, \$)
local i, j, c, p, b, n, sdprimes, dir;
local tprimes := table();
if left = true and right = true then
error "invalid input";
elif right = true then
dir := "right";
else
dir := "left";
end if;
b := 10;
n := 6;
sdprimes := select(isprime, [seq(1..b-1)]);
for p in sdprimes do
if assigned(tprimes[p]) then
next;
end if;
i := ilog[b](p)+1;
j := 1;
while p < b^n do
if dir = "left" then
c := j*b^i + p;
else
c := p*b + j;
end if;
if j >= b or c > b^n then # we have tried all 1 digit extensions of p, add p to tprimes and move back 1 digit
tprimes[p] := p;
if i = 1 then # if we are at the first digit,  go to the next 1 digit prime
break;
end if;
i := i - 1;
j := 1;
if dir = "left" then
p := p - iquo(p, b^i)*b^i;
else
p := iquo(p, b);
end if;
elif assigned(tprimes[c]) then
j := j + 1;
elif isprime(c) then
p := c;
i := i + 1;
j := 1;
else
j := j+1;
end if;
end do;
end do;
return max(indices(tprimes, 'nolist'));
end proc;
```
```

> MaxTruncatablePrime(right); MaxTruncatablePrime(left);
739399
998443

```

## Mathematica

```LeftTruncatablePrimeQ[n_] := Times @@ IntegerDigits[n] > 0 &&
And @@ PrimeQ /@ ToExpression /@ StringJoin /@
Rest[Most[NestList[Rest, #, Length[#]] &[Characters[ToString[n]]]]]
RightTruncatablePrimeQ[n_] := Times @@ IntegerDigits[n] > 0 &&
And @@ PrimeQ /@ ToExpression /@ StringJoin /@
Rest[Most[NestList[Most, #, Length[#]] &[Characters[ToString[n]]]]]
```

Example usage:

```n = PrimePi[1000000]; While[Not[LeftTruncatablePrimeQ[Prime[n]]], n--]; Prime[n]
-> 998443

n = PrimePi[1000000]; While[Not[RightTruncatablePrimeQ[Prime[n]]], n--]; Prime[n]
-> 739399
```

## MATLAB

largestTruncatablePrimes.m:

```function largestTruncatablePrimes(boundary)

%Helper function for checking if a prime is left of right truncatable
function [leftTruncatable,rightTruncatable] = isTruncatable(prime,checkLeftTruncatable,checkRightTruncatable)

numDigits = ceil(log10(prime)); %calculate the number of digits in the prime less one
powersOfTen = 10.^(0:numDigits); %cache the needed powers of ten

leftTruncated = mod(prime,powersOfTen); %generate a list of numbers by repeatedly left truncating the prime

%leading zeros will cause duplicate entries thus it is possible to
%detect leading zeros if we rotate the list to the left or right
%and check for any equivalences with the original list
hasLeadingZeros = any( circshift(leftTruncated,[0 1]) == leftTruncated );

leftTruncatable = false;
else
%check if all of the left truncated numbers are prime
leftTruncatable = all(isprime(leftTruncated(2:end)));
end

if( checkRightTruncatable )
rightTruncated = (prime - leftTruncated) ./ powersOfTen; %generate a list of right truncated numbers
rightTruncatable = all(isprime(rightTruncated(1:end-1))); %check if all the right truncated numbers are prime
else
rightTruncatable = false;
end

end %isTruncatable()

nums = primes(boundary); %generate all primes <= boundary

%Flags that indicate if the largest left or right truncatable prime has not
%been found
leftTruncateNotFound = true;
rightTruncateNotFound = true;

for prime = nums(end:-1:1) %Search through primes in reverse order

%Get if the prime is left and/or right truncatable, ignoring
%checking for right truncatable if it has already been found
[leftTruncatable,rightTruncatable] = isTruncatable(prime,leftTruncateNotFound,rightTruncateNotFound);

if( leftTruncateNotFound && leftTruncatable ) %print out largest left truncatable prime
display([num2str(prime) ' is the largest left truncatable prime <= ' num2str(boundary) '.']);
leftTruncateNotFound = false;
end

if( rightTruncateNotFound && rightTruncatable ) %print out largest right truncatable prime
display([num2str(prime) ' is the largest right truncatable prime <= ' num2str(boundary) '.']);
rightTruncateNotFound = false;
end

%Terminate loop when the largest left and right truncatable primes have
%been found
if( not(leftTruncateNotFound || rightTruncateNotFound) )
break;
end
end
end

```

Solution for n = 1,000,000:

```
>> largestTruncatablePrimes(1e6)
998443 is the largest left truncatable prime <= 1000000.
739399 is the largest right truncatable prime <= 1000000.

```

## Nim

{{trans|Python}}

```import sets, strutils, algorithm

proc primes(n: int64): seq[int64] =
result = @[]
var multiples = initSet[int64]()
for i in 2..n:
if i notin multiples:
for j in countup(i*i, n, i.int):
multiples.incl j

proc truncatablePrime(n: int64): tuple[left: int64, right: int64] =
var
primelist: seq[string] = @[]
for x in primes(n):
reverse primelist
var primeset = toSet primelist
for n in primelist:
var alltruncs = initSet[string]()
for i in 0..n.len-1:
alltruncs.incl n[i..n.high]
if alltruncs <= primeset:
result.left = parseInt(n)
break
for n in primelist:
var alltruncs = initSet[string]()
for i in 0..n.len-1:
alltruncs.incl n[0..i]
if alltruncs <= primeset:
result.right = parseInt(n)
break

echo truncatablePrime(1000000'i64)
```

Output:

```(left: 998443, right: 739399)
```

## ooRexx

```
-- find largest left- & right-truncatable primes < 1 million.
-- an initial set of primes (not, at this time, we leave out 2 because
-- we'll automatically skip the even numbers.  No point in doing a needless
-- test each time through
primes = .array~of(3, 5, 7, 11)

-- check all of the odd numbers up to 1,000,000
loop j = 13 by 2 to 1000000
loop i = 1 to primes~size
prime = primes[i]
-- found an even prime divisor
if j // prime == 0 then iterate j
-- only check up to the square root
if prime*prime > j then leave
end
-- we only get here if we don't find a divisor
primes~append(j)
end

-- get a set of the primes that we can test more efficiently
primeSet = .set~of(2)
primeSet~putall(primes)

say 'The last prime is' primes[primes~last] "("primeSet~items 'primes under one million).'
say copies('-',66)

lastLeft = 0

-- we're going to use the array version to do these in order.  We're still
-- missing "2", but that's not going to be the largest
loop prime over primes

-- values containing 0 can never work
if prime~pos(0) \= 0 then iterate
-- now start the truncations, checking against our set of
-- known primes
loop i = 1 for prime~length - 1
subprime = prime~right(i)
-- not in our known set, this can't work
if \primeset~hasIndex(subprime) then iterate prime
end
-- this, by definition, with be the largest left-trunc prime
lastLeft = prime
end
-- now look for right-trunc primes
lastRight = 0
loop prime over primes

-- values containing 0 can never work
if prime~pos(0) \= 0 then iterate
-- now start the truncations, checking against our set of
-- known primes
loop i = 1 for prime~length - 1
subprime = prime~left(i)
-- not in our known set, this can't work
if \primeset~hasIndex(subprime) then iterate prime
end
-- this, by definition, with be the largest left-trunc prime
lastRight = prime
end

say 'The largest  left-truncatable prime is' lastLeft '(under one million).'
say 'The largest right-truncatable prime is' lastRight '(under one million).'

```

Output:

```
The last prime is 999983 (78498 primes under one million).
------------------------------------------------------------------
The largest  left-truncatable prime is 998443 (under one million).
The largest right-truncatable prime is 739399 (under one million).

```

## OpenEdge/Progress

```FUNCTION isPrime RETURNS LOGICAL (
i_i AS INT
):

DEF VAR ii AS INT.

DO ii = 2 TO SQRT( i_i ):

IF i_i MODULO ii = 0 THEN
RETURN FALSE.

END.

RETURN TRUE AND i_i > 1.

END FUNCTION. /* isPrime */

FUNCTION isLeftTruncatablePrime RETURNS LOGICAL (
i_i AS INT
):

DEF VAR ii        AS INT.
DEF VAR cc        AS CHAR.
DEF VAR lresult   AS LOGICAL INITIAL TRUE.

cc = STRING( i_i ).

DO WHILE cc > "":
lresult = lresult AND isPrime( INTEGER( cc ) ).
cc = SUBSTRING( cc, 2 ).
END.

RETURN lresult.

END FUNCTION. /* isLeftTruncatablePrime */

FUNCTION isRightTruncatablePrime RETURNS LOGICAL (
i_i AS INT
):

DEF VAR ii        AS INT.
DEF VAR cc        AS CHAR.
DEF VAR lresult   AS LOGICAL INITIAL TRUE.

cc = STRING( i_i ).

DO WHILE cc > "":
lresult = lresult AND isPrime( INTEGER( cc ) ).
cc = SUBSTRING( cc, 1, LENGTH( cc ) - 1 ).
END.

RETURN lresult.

END FUNCTION. /* isRightTruncatablePrime */

FUNCTION getHighestTruncatablePrimes RETURNS CHARACTER (
i_imax AS INTEGER
):

DEF VAR ii        AS INT.
DEF VAR ileft     AS INT.
DEF VAR iright    AS INT.

DO ii = i_imax TO 1 BY -1 WHILE ileft = 0 OR iright = 0:

IF INDEX( STRING( ii ), "0" ) = 0 THEN DO:
IF ileft = 0 AND isLeftTruncatablePrime( ii ) THEN
ileft = ii.
IF iright = 0 AND isRightTruncatablePrime( ii ) THEN
iright = ii.
END.

END.

RETURN SUBSTITUTE("Left: &1~nRight: &2", ileft, iright ).

END FUNCTION. /* getHighestTruncatablePrimes */

MESSAGE
getHighestTruncatablePrimes( 1000000 )

```

Output:

```---------------------------
Message
---------------------------
Left: 998443
Right: 739399
---------------------------
OK
---------------------------
```

## PARI/GP

This version builds the truncatable primes with up to k digits in a straightforward fashion. Run time is about 15 milliseconds, almost all of which is I/O.

```left(n)={
my(v=[2,3,5,7],u,t=1,out=0);
for(i=1,n,
t*=10;
u=[];
for(j=1,#v,
forstep(a=t,t*9,t,
if(isprime(a+v[j]),u=concat(u,a+v[j]))
)
);
out=v[#v];
v=vecsort(u)
);
out
};
right(n)={
my(v=[2,3,5,7],u,out=0);
for(i=1,n,
u=[];
for(j=1,#v,
forstep(a=1,9,[2,4],
if(isprime(10*v[j]+a),u=concat(u,10*v[j]+a))
)
);
out=v[#v];
v=u
);
out
};
[left(6),right(6)]
```

## Perl

Typically with Perl we'll look for a CPAN module to make our life easier. This basically just follows the task rules: {{libheader|ntheory}}

```use ntheory ":all";
sub isltrunc {
my \$n = shift;
return (is_prime(\$n) && \$n !~ /0/ && (\$n < 10 || isltrunc(substr(\$n,1))));
}
sub isrtrunc {
my \$n = shift;
return (is_prime(\$n) && \$n !~ /0/ && (\$n < 10 || isrtrunc(substr(\$n,0,-1))));
}
for (reverse @{primes(1e6)}) {
if (isltrunc(\$_)) { print "ltrunc: \$_\n"; last; }
}
for (reverse @{primes(1e6)}) {
if (isrtrunc(\$_)) { print "rtrunc: \$_\n"; last; }
}
```

{{out}}

```ltrunc: 998443
rtrunc: 739399
```

We can be a little more Perlish and build up n-digit lists then select the last one:

```use ntheory ":all";

my @lprimes = my @rprimes = (2,3,5,7);

@lprimes = sort { \$a <=> \$b }
map { my \$p=\$_; map { is_prime(\$_.\$p) ? \$_.\$p : () } 1..9 } @lprimes
for 2..6;

@rprimes = sort { \$a <=> \$b }
map { my \$p=\$_; map { is_prime(\$p.\$_) ? \$p.\$_ : () } 1..9 } @rprimes
for 2..6;

print "ltrunc: \$lprimes[-1]\nrtrunc: \$rprimes[-1]\n";
```

Or we can do everything ourselves:

```#!/usr/bin/perl
use warnings;
use strict;

use constant {
LEFT  => 0,
RIGHT => 1,
};

{   my @primes = (2, 3);

sub is_prime {
my \$n = shift;
return if \$n < 2;

for my \$prime (@primes) {
last if \$prime >= \$n;
return unless \$n % \$prime;
}

my \$sqrt = sqrt \$n;
while (\$primes[-1] < \$sqrt) {
my \$new = 2 + \$primes[-1];
\$new += 2 until is_prime(\$new);
push @primes, \$new;
return unless \$n % \$new;
}

return 1;
}
}

sub trunc {
my (\$n, \$side) = @_;
substr \$n, \$side == LEFT ? 0 : -1, 1, q();
return \$n;
}

sub is_tprime { # Absence of zeroes is tested outside the sub.
my (\$n, \$side) = @_;
return (is_prime(\$n)
and (1 == length \$n or is_tprime(trunc(\$n, \$side), \$side)));
}

my \$length = 6;
my @tprimes = ('9' x \$length) x 2;
for my \$side (LEFT, RIGHT) {
\$tprimes[\$side] -= 2 until -1 == index \$tprimes[\$side], '0'
and is_tprime(\$tprimes[\$side], \$side);
}

print 'left ', join(', right ', @tprimes), "\n";
```

{{out}}

```left 998443, right 739399
```

## Perl 6

{{works with|Rakudo|2015.09}}

```constant ltp = \$[2, 3, 5, 7], -> @ltp {
\$[ grep { .&is-prime }, ((1..9) X~ @ltp) ]
} ... *;

constant rtp = \$[2, 3, 5, 7], -> @rtp {
\$[ grep { .&is-prime }, (@rtp X~ (1..9)) ]
} ... *;

say "Highest ltp = ", ltp[5][*-1];
say "Highest rtp = ", rtp[5][*-1];
```

{{out}}

```Highest ltp: 998443
Highest rtp: 739399
```

## Phix

A slightly different approach. Works up to N=8, quite fast - 10^8 in 5s with ~90% of time spent creating the basic sieve and ~10% propagation and final scan.

```constant N = 6, limit = power(10,N)
-- standard sieve:
enum L,R  -- (with primes[i] as mini bit-field)
sequence primes = repeat(L+R, limit)
primes[1] = 0
for i=2 to floor(sqrt(limit)) do
if primes[i] then
for k=i*i to limit by i do
primes[k] = 0
end for
end if
end for

-- propagate non-truncateables up the prime table:
for p=1 to N-1 do
integer p10 = power(10,p)       -- ie 10, 100, .. 100_000
for i=p10+1 to p10*10-1 by 2 do -- to 99, 999, .. 999_999
if primes[i] then
integer l = remainder(i,p10),
r = floor(i/10)
integer pi = and_bits(primes[l],L)+and_bits(primes[r],R)
if pi and find('0',sprint(i)) then pi = 0 end if
primes[i] = pi
end if
end for
end for

integer maxl=0, maxr=0

for i=limit-1 to 1 by -2 do
integer pi = primes[i]
if pi then
if maxl=0 and and_bits(pi,L) then maxl = i end if
if maxr=0 and and_bits(pi,R) then maxr = i end if
if maxl!=0 and maxr!=0 then exit end if
end if
end for
?{maxl,maxr}
```

{{Out}}

```
{998443,739399}

```

## PicoLisp

```(load "@lib/rsa.l")  # Use the 'prime?' function from RSA package

(de truncatablePrime? (N Fun)
(for (L (chop N) L (Fun L))
(T (= "0" (car L)))
(NIL (prime? (format L)))
T ) )

(let (Left 1000000  Right 1000000)
(until (truncatablePrime? (dec 'Left) cdr))
(until (truncatablePrime? (dec 'Right) '((L) (cdr (rot L)))))
(cons Left Right) )
```

Output:

```-> (998443 . 739399)
```

## PL/I

```
tp: procedure options (main);
declare primes(1000000) bit (1);
declare max_primes fixed binary (31);
declare (i, k) fixed binary (31);

max_primes = hbound(primes, 1);
call sieve;

/* Now search for primes that are right-truncatable. */
call right_truncatable;

/* Now search for primes that are left-truncatable. */
call left_truncatable;

right_truncatable: procedure;
declare direction bit (1);
declare (i, k) fixed binary (31);

test_truncatable:
do i = max_primes to 2 by -1;
if primes(i) then /* it's a prime */
do;
k = i/10;
do while (k > 0);
if ^primes(k) then iterate test_truncatable;
k = k/10;
end;
put skip list (i || ' is right-truncatable');
return;
end;
end;
end right_truncatable;

left_truncatable: procedure;
declare direction bit (1);
declare (i, k, d, e) fixed binary (31);

test_truncatable:
do i = max_primes to 2 by -1;
if primes(i) then /* it's a prime */
do;
k = i;
do d = 100000 repeat d/10 until (d = 10);
e = k/d;
k = k - e*d;
if e = 0 then iterate test_truncatable;
if ^primes(k) then iterate test_truncatable;
end;
put skip list (i || ' is left-truncatable');
return;
end;
end;
end left_truncatable;

sieve: procedure;
declare (i, j) fixed binary (31);

primes = '1'b; primes(1) = '0'b;

do i = 2 to sqrt(max_primes);
do j = i+i to max_primes by i;
primes(j) = '0'b;
end;
end;
end sieve;

end tp;

```
```
739399 is right-truncatable
998443 is left-truncatable

```

## PowerShell

```function IsPrime ( [int] \$num )
{
\$isprime = @{}
2..[math]::sqrt(\$num) | Where-Object {
\$isprime[\$_] -eq \$null } | ForEach-Object {
\$_
\$isprime[\$_] = \$true
for ( \$i=\$_*\$_ ; \$i -le \$num; \$i += \$_ )
{ \$isprime[\$i] = \$false }
}
2..\$num | Where-Object { \$isprime[\$_] -eq \$null }
}

function Truncatable ( [int] \$num )
{
\$declen = [math]::abs(\$num).ToString().Length
\$primes = @()
\$ltprimes = @{}
\$rtprimes = @{}
1..\$declen | ForEach-Object { \$ltprimes[\$_]=@{}; \$rtprimes[\$_]=@{} }
IsPrime \$num | ForEach-Object {
\$lastltprime = 2
\$lastrtprime = 2
} {
\$curprim = \$_
\$curdeclen = \$curprim.ToString().Length
\$primes += \$curprim
if( \$curdeclen -eq 1 ) {
\$ltprimes[1][\$curprim] = \$true
\$rtprimes[1][\$curprim] = \$true
\$lastltprime = \$curprim
\$lastrtprime = \$curprim
} else {
\$curmod = \$curprim % [math]::pow(10,\$curdeclen - 1)
\$curdiv = [math]::floor(\$curprim / 10)
if( \$ltprimes[\$curdeclen - 1][[int]\$curmod] ) {
\$ltprimes[\$curdeclen][\$curprim] = \$true
\$lastltprime = \$curprim
}
if( \$rtprimes[\$curdeclen - 1][[int]\$curdiv] ) {
\$rtprimes[\$curdeclen][\$curprim] = \$true
\$lastrtprime = \$curprim
}
}
if( ( \$ltprimes[\$curdeclen - 2].Keys.count -gt 0 ) -and ( \$ltprimes[\$curdeclen - 1].Keys.count -gt 0 ) ) { \$ltprimes[\$curdeclen -2] = @{} }
if( ( \$rtprimes[\$curdeclen - 2].Keys.count -gt 0 ) -and ( \$rtprimes[\$curdeclen - 1].Keys.count -gt 0 ) ) { \$rtprimes[\$curdeclen -2] = @{} }
} {
"Largest Left Truncatable Prime: \$lastltprime"
"Largest Right Truncatable Prime: \$lastrtprime"
}
}
```

## PureBasic

```#MaxLim = 999999

Procedure is_Prime(n)
If     n<=1 : ProcedureReturn #False
ElseIf n<4  : ProcedureReturn #True
ElseIf n%2=0: ProcedureReturn #False
ElseIf n<9  : ProcedureReturn #True
ElseIf n%3=0: ProcedureReturn #False
Else
Protected r=Round(Sqr(n),#PB_Round_Down)
Protected f=5
While f<=r
If n%f=0 Or n%(f+2)=0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
f+6
Wend
EndIf
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure

Procedure TruncateLeft(n)
Protected s.s=Str(n), l=Len(s)-1
If Not FindString(s,"0",1)
While l>0
s=Right(s,l)
If Not is_Prime(Val(s))
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
l-1
Wend
ProcedureReturn #True
EndIf
EndProcedure

Procedure TruncateRight(a)
Repeat
a/10
If Not a
Break
ElseIf Not is_Prime(a) Or a%10=0
ProcedureReturn #False
EndIf
ForEver
ProcedureReturn #True
EndProcedure

i=#MaxLim
Repeat
If is_Prime(i)
If Not truncateleft And TruncateLeft(i)
truncateleft=i
EndIf
If Not truncateright And TruncateRight(i)
truncateright=i
EndIf
EndIf
If truncateleft And truncateright
Break
Else
i-2
EndIf
Until i<=0

x.s="Largest TruncateLeft= "+Str(truncateleft)
y.s="Largest TruncateRight= "+Str(truncateright)

MessageRequester("Truncatable primes",x+#CRLF\$+y)
```

```maxprime = 1000000

def primes(n):
multiples = set()
prime = []
for i in range(2, n+1):
if i not in multiples:
prime.append(i)
multiples.update(set(range(i*i, n+1, i)))
return prime

def truncatableprime(n):
'Return a longest left and right truncatable primes below n'
primelist = [str(x) for x in primes(n)[::-1]]
primeset = set(primelist)
for n in primelist:
# n = 'abc'; [n[i:] for i in range(len(n))] -> ['abc', 'bc', 'c']
alltruncs = set(n[i:] for i in range(len(n)))
if alltruncs.issubset(primeset):
truncateleft = int(n)
break
for n in primelist:
# n = 'abc'; [n[:i+1] for i in range(len(n))] -> ['a', 'ab', 'abc']
alltruncs = set([n[:i+1] for i in range(len(n))])
if alltruncs.issubset(primeset):
truncateright = int(n)
break
return truncateleft, truncateright

print(truncatableprime(maxprime))
```

'''Sample Output'''

```(998443, 739399)
```

## Racket

```
#lang racket
(require math/number-theory)

(define (truncate-right n)
(quotient n 10))

(define (truncate-left n)
(define s (number->string n))
(string->number (substring s 1 (string-length s))))

(define (contains-zero? n)
(member #\0 (string->list (number->string n))))

(define (truncatable? truncate n)
(and (prime? n)
(not (contains-zero? n))
(or (< n 10)
(truncatable? truncate (truncate n)))))

; largest left truncatable prime
(for/first ([n (in-range 1000000 1 -1)]
#:when (truncatable? truncate-left n))
n)

; largest right truncatable prime
(for/first ([n (in-range 1000000 1 -1)]
#:when (truncatable? truncate-right n))
n)

; Output:
998443
739399

```

## REXX

Extra code was added to the prime number generator as this is the section of the REXX program that consumes the vast majority of the computation time.

```/*REXX program finds largest  left─ and right─truncatable  primes ≤ 1m  (or argument 1).*/
parse arg high .;    if high==''  then high=1000000        /*Not specified?  Then use 1m*/
!.=0;   w=length(high)                           /*placeholders for primes;  max width. */
@.1=2;  @.2=3;  @.3=5;  @.4=7;  @.5=11;  @.6=13;  @.7=17   /*define some low primes.    */
!.2=1;  !.3=1;  !.5=1;  !.7=1;  !.11=1;  !.13=1;  !.17=1   /*set some low prime flags.  */
#=7;    s.#=@.#**2                               /*number of primes so far;     prime². */
/* [↓]  generate more  primes  ≤  high.*/
do j=@.#+2  by 2  for max(0, high%2-@.#%2-1)  /*only find odd primes from here on out*/
if j// 3==0 then iterate /*is J divisible by three?             */
parse var j '' -1 _; if     _==5 then iterate /* " "     "      " five? (right digit)*/
if j// 7==0 then iterate /* " "     "      " seven?             */
if j//11==0 then iterate /* " "     "      " eleven?            */
if j//13==0 then iterate /* " "     "      " thirteen?          */
/* [↑]  the above five lines saves time*/
do k=7  while s.k<=j                   /* [↓]  divide by the known odd primes.*/
if j//@.k==0  then iterate j           /*Is J ÷  X?  Then not prime.    ___   */
end   /*k*/                            /* [↑]  only process up to the  √ J    */
#=#+1                                         /*bump the number of primes found.     */
@.#=j;      s.#=j*j;     !.j=1                /*assign next prime;  prime²;  prime #.*/
end         /*j*/
/* [↓]  find largest left truncatable P*/
do L=#  by -1  for #;    digs=length(@.L)      /*search from top end;  get the length.*/
do k=1  for digs;  _=right(@.L, k)       /*validate all left truncatable primes.*/
if \!._  then iterate L                  /*Truncated number not prime?  Skip it.*/
end   /*k*/
leave                                          /*egress, found left truncatable prime.*/
end         /*L*/
/* [↓]  find largest right truncated P.*/
do R=#  by -1  for #;    digs=length(@.R)      /*search from top end;  get the length.*/
do k=1  for digs;  _=left(@.R, k)        /*validate all right truncatable primes*/
if \!._  then iterate R                  /*Truncated number not prime?  Skip it.*/
end   /*k*/
leave                                          /*egress, found right truncatable prime*/
end         /*R*/
/* [↓]  show largest left/right trunc P*/
say 'The last prime found is '   @.#    " (there are"   #   'primes ≤'  high")."
say copies('─', 70)                              /*show a separator line for the output.*/
say 'The largest  left─truncatable prime ≤'        high        " is "       right(@.L, w)
say 'The largest right─truncatable prime ≤'        high        " is "       right(@.R, w)
/*stick a fork in it,  we're all done. */
```

'''output''' when using the default input:

```
The last prime found is  999983  (there are 78498 primes ≤ 1000000).
──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
The largest  left─truncatable prime ≤ 1000000  is   998443
The largest right─truncatable prime ≤ 1000000  is   739399

```

## Ring

```
# Project : Truncatable primes

for n = 1000000 to 1 step -1
flag = 1
flag2 = 1
strn = string(n)
for nr = 1 to len(strn)
if strn[nr] = "0"
flag2 = 0
ok
next
if flag2 = 1
for m = 1 to len(strn)
strp = right(strn, m)
if isprime(number(strp))
else
flag = 0
exit
ok
next
if flag = 1
nend = n
exit
ok
ok
next
see "Largest left truncatable prime : " + nend + nl

for n = 1000000 to 1 step -1
flag = 1
strn = string(n)
for m = 1 to len(strn)
strp = left(strn, len(strn) - m + 1)
if isprime(number(strp))
else
flag = 0
exit
ok
next
if flag = 1
nend = n
exit
ok
next
see "Largest right truncatable prime : " + nend + nl

func isprime num
if (num <= 1) return 0 ok
if (num % 2 = 0 and num != 2) return 0 ok
for i = 3 to floor(num / 2) -1 step 2
if (num % i = 0) return 0 ok
next
return 1

```

Output:

```
Largest left  truncatable prime : 998443
Largest right truncatable prime : 739399

```

## Ruby

```def left_truncatable?(n)
truncatable?(n) {|i| i.to_s[1..-1].to_i}
end

def right_truncatable?(n)
truncatable?(n) {|i| i/10}
end

def truncatable?(n, &trunc_func)
return false if n.to_s.include? "0"
loop do
n = trunc_func.call(n)
return true if n.zero?
return false unless Prime.prime?(n)
end
end

require 'prime'
primes = Prime.each(1_000_000).to_a.reverse

p primes.detect {|p| left_truncatable? p}
p primes.detect {|p| right_truncatable? p}
```

returns

```998443
739399
```

### An Alternative Approach

Setting BASE to 10 and MAX to 6 in the Ruby example [[Find largest left truncatable prime in a given base|here]] Produces:

```
The largest left truncatable prime less than 1000000 in base 10 is 998443

```

## Scala

This example uses lazily evaluated lists. The functions to determine if a number is a truncatable prime construct a list of truncated numbers and check that all the elements in the list are prime.

```object TruncatablePrimes {
def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
val max = 1000000

println(
s"""|ltPrime: \${ltPrimes.takeWhile(_ <= max).last}
|rtPrime: \${rtPrimes.takeWhile(_ <= max).last}
|""".stripMargin)
}

def ltPrimes: LazyList[Int] = 2 #:: LazyList.from(3, 2).filter(isLeftTruncPrime)
def rtPrimes: LazyList[Int] = 2 #:: LazyList.from(3, 2).filter(isRightTruncPrime)

def isPrime(num: Int): Boolean = (num > 1) && !LazyList.range(3, math.sqrt(num).toInt + 1, 2).exists(num%_ == 0)
def isLeftTruncPrime(num: Int): Boolean = !num.toString.contains('0') && Iterator.unfold(num.toString){str => if(str.nonEmpty) Some((str.toInt, str.tail)) else None}.forall(isPrime)
def isRightTruncPrime(num: Int): Boolean = !num.toString.exists(_.asDigit%2 == 0) && Iterator.unfold(num.toString){str => if(str.nonEmpty) Some((str.toInt, str.init)) else None}.forall(isPrime)
}
```

{{out}}

```ltPrime: 998443
rtPrime: 739399
```

## Sidef

```func t_prime(n, left=true) {
var p = %w(2 3 5 7);
var f = (
left ? { '1'..'9' ~X+ p }
: { p ~X+ '1'..'9' }
)
n.times {
p = f().grep{ .to_i.is_prime }
}
p.map{.to_i}.max
}

say t_prime(5, left: true)
say t_prime(5, left: false)
```

{{out}}

```
998443
739399

```

## Tcl

```package require Tcl 8.5

# Optimized version of the Sieve-of-Eratosthenes task solution
proc sieve n {
set primes [list]
if {\$n < 2} {return \$primes}
set nums [dict create]
for {set i 2} {\$i <= \$n} {incr i} {
dict set nums \$i ""
}
set next 2
set limit [expr {sqrt(\$n)}]
while {\$next <= \$limit} {
for {set i \$next} {\$i <= \$n} {incr i \$next} {dict unset nums \$i}
lappend primes \$next
dict for {next -} \$nums break
}
return [concat \$primes [dict keys \$nums]]
}

proc isLeftTruncatable n {
global isPrime
while {[string length \$n] > 0} {
if {![info exist isPrime(\$n)]} {
return false
}
set n [string range \$n 1 end]
}
return true
}
proc isRightTruncatable n {
global isPrime
while {[string length \$n] > 0} {
if {![info exist isPrime(\$n)]} {
return false
}
set n [string range \$n 0 end-1]
}
return true
}

# Demo code
set limit 1000000
puts "calculating primes up to \$limit"
set primes [sieve \$limit]
puts "search space contains [llength \$primes] members"
foreach p \$primes {
set isPrime(\$p) "yes"
}
set primes [lreverse \$primes]

puts "searching for largest left-truncatable prime"
foreach p \$primes {
if {[isLeftTruncatable \$p]} {
puts FOUND:\$p
break
}
}

puts "searching for largest right-truncatable prime"
foreach p \$primes {
if {[isRightTruncatable \$p]} {
puts FOUND:\$p
break
}
}
```

Output:

```
calculating primes up to 1000000
search space contains 78498 members
searching for largest left-truncatable prime
FOUND:998443
searching for largest right-truncatable prime
FOUND:739399

```

## VBScript

```
start_time = Now

lt = 0
rt = 0

For h = 1 To 1000000
If IsLeftTruncatable(h) And h > lt Then
lt = h
End If
If IsRightTruncatable(h) And h > rt Then
rt = h
End If
Next

end_time = now

WScript.StdOut.WriteLine "Largest LTP from 1..1000000: " & lt
WScript.StdOut.WriteLine "Largest RTP from 1..1000000: " & rt
WScript.StdOut.WriteLine "Elapse Time(seconds)       : " & DateDiff("s",start_time,end_time)

'------------
Function IsLeftTruncatable(n)
IsLeftTruncatable = False
c = 0
For i = Len(n) To 1 Step -1
If InStr(1,n,"0") > 0 Then
Exit For
End If
If IsPrime(Right(n,i)) Then
c = c + 1
End If
Next
If c = Len(n) Then
IsLeftTruncatable = True
End If
End Function

Function IsRightTruncatable(n)
IsRightTruncatable = False
c = 0
For i = Len(n) To 1 Step -1
If InStr(1,n,"0") > 0 Then
Exit For
End If
If IsPrime(Left(n,i)) Then
c = c + 1
End If
Next
If c = Len(n) Then
IsRightTruncatable = True
End If
End Function

Function IsPrime(n)
If n = 2 Then
IsPrime = True
ElseIf n <= 1 Or n Mod 2 = 0 Then
IsPrime = False
Else
IsPrime = True
For i = 3 To Int(Sqr(n)) Step 2
If n Mod i = 0 Then
IsPrime = False
Exit For
End If
Next
End If
End Function

```

{{Out}}

```
Largest LTP from 1..1000000: 998443
Largest RTP from 1..1000000: 739399
Elapse Time(seconds)       : 49

```

## XPL0

```code CrLf=9, IntOut=11;

func Prime(P);          \Return true if P is a prime number
int  P;                 \(1 is not prime, but 2 is, etc.)
int  I;
[if P<=1 then return false;     \negative numbers are not prime
for I:= 2 to sqrt(P) do
if rem(P/I) = 0 then return false;
return true;
];

func RightTrunc(N);     \Return largest right-truncatable prime < one million
int N;
int M;
[for N:= 1_000_000-1 downto 2 do
[M:= N;
loop    [if not Prime(M) then quit;
M:= M/10;
if rem(0) = 0 then quit;        \no zeros allowed
if M=0 then return N;
];
];
];

func LeftTrunc(N);      \Return largest left-truncatable prime < one million
int N;
int M, P;
[for N:= 1_000_000-1 downto 2 do
[M:= N;
P:=100_000;
loop    [if not Prime(M) then quit;
M:= rem(M/P);
P:= P/10;
if M<P then quit;               \no zeros allowed
if M=0 then return N;
];
];
];

[IntOut(0, LeftTrunc);  CrLf(0);
IntOut(0, RightTrunc); CrLf(0);
]
```

Output:

```
998443
739399

```

## zkl

Using [[Extensible prime generator#zkl]] and a one meg bucket of bytes, construct a yes/no lookup table for all primes <= one million (<80,000).

```const million=0d1_000_000;

var pTable=Data(million+1,Int).fill(0);	// actually bytes, all zero
primes:=Utils.Generator(Import("sieve").postponed_sieve);
while((p:=primes.next())<million){ pTable[p]=1; }

fcn rightTrunc(n){
while(n){ if(not pTable[n]) return(False); n/=10; }
True
}
fcn leftTrunc(n){  // 999,907 is not allowed
ns:=n.toString(); if (ns.holds("0")) return(False);
while(ns){ if(not pTable[ns]) return(False); ns=ns[1,*]; }
True
}
```
```[million..0,-1].filter1(rightTrunc):
"%,d is a right truncatable prime".fmt(_).println();
[million..0,-1].filter1(leftTrunc):
"%,d is a left truncatable prime".fmt(_).println();
```

{{out}}

```
739,399 is a right truncatable prime
998,443 is a left truncatable prime

```